Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Title: Discuss the importance of depreciation expenses. Depreciation as a concept and in practice plays a very important role in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cash flow hence in funding. The reasonÃ¢â¬â¢s are basically two, firstly because depreciation is a way of self finance for an organization and secondly because is a way of decreasing taxes that the government claims as the company doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to pay taxes on depreciation which consequently enlarges the cash flow of the company. As a term depreciation in accounting is the process of allocating the cost of a capital asset over the period of its useful life. Depreciation takes into account the decrease in the service potential of capital assets invested in a business venture, resulting from such causes as physical wear and tear in ordinary use, deterioration by natural elements or obsolescence caused by technological changes. Basically depreciation is a loss in value or a diminishment in market price of a good always taking the time factor into account. Depreciation is a rate of change in value in an asset fixed or current compared to the present value of that asset. For example if a company purchases machinery for the production of a certain product the management must take under consideration the equipmentÃ¢â¬â¢s life cycle, meaning that this machinery has a certain period of time in which it can contribute to the production before it becomes useless. Useless in a sense of a newer machine will be invented in some years which will be probably faster or more capable to produce better quality. The time factor of course always varies depending on the asset. For example the usefulness of a computer may be three years before it needs replacing, as for a building may be fifty years. A Mercedes van for instance in year 2000 could be purchased at the value of 13 million drachmas and its productive life span before it needs to be replaced will probably be 8 years. After the 8 years the van purchased would cease from being of any productive use to the company and if it needs to be resoled its market value would have depreciated drastically due to the time fade from the initial purchase. Its devaluation is its year zero value less an annual percentage of the devaluation process updated annually. But depreciation doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t apply only to current assets but also is applicable to fixed assets as well.
Monday, January 13, 2020
1. Discuss IMAXÃ¢â¬â¢s business level strategy to date and proposed changes. (10 points) Products differentiation The large format movie system gives customers unique visual and audio movie watching experience that cannot be found in conventional movie theaters. IMAX is also differentiated by its library of films and locations. IMAX located itself in institutional environment and commercial multiplexes to target wider audiences include family, students, and tourists at different time during the day by screening its own movies and other studiosÃ¢â¬â¢ movies. Speaking of the technologies, IMAX films printed on larger films, which require special designed camera, projector, and screen to display the IMAX features. Cost leadership. The company heavily invests financial and human resources in their R&D, because the technologies developed would lower the costs of producing and distributing films significantly. The newer service agreements and partnership with theater owners allow IMAX lower its capital requirements when new IMAX screens were opened in the traditional multiplexes. IMAX not only saves money on films making because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to pay a lots of money to the major stars as the Hollywood does, but also save money on the marketing. IMAX increased the number of Hollywood movies in order to ride on the coat- tails of marketing campaigns launched by the studios. The proposed expanding strategies will bring more audience to IMAX, and save more production and distribution costs. By opening new IMAX screen in commercial multiplexes will give customers easy access to IMAX movie, and allow IMAX gain more market share, and increase box ticket revenue. Although the initial system installation and movie converting costs are big, over long term IMAX can achieve economies of scale by utilizing the IMAX system installed in traditional theaters. 2. Conduct an external analysis. (25 points) a). PESTEL framework Political factors Concerns about violence, sex, and vulgar language in movies had generated considerable efforts to organize and lobby political action to regulate the industry. There are some limit in terms on selection of movies. Legal factors Copyright law protects this industry suffering from piracy. Violations of copyright act were considered felonies and were subject to federal criminal charges and civil lawsuits. Patent law also protects the technologies heavily used in this industry. Economic factors The economy is fairly stable except the crisis that hit the industry in the late 1990s because of the overbuilding during that decade, the 911 crisis in the early 2000s and the economic recession in 2008. The economic crisis in 2001 and 2008 would reduce peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s disposable income therefore reduce the revenue of the industry. Socio-cultural IMAX is trendy. It does not matter that if people have seen movies in the traditional theater before, some of them would like to watch on IMAX screen again. Parents looking for activities combine education and entertainment would go to IMAX. More highly educated parents and overscheduled kids would like to go to places equipped with IMAX system. The college and university education are popularized which increases the majority of IMAX audiences. Technology factor New filming technology development are encouraged and supported by funds, associations and Oscar Award. But the development of high-definition DVD recording, big screen TVs and cheaper projection and sound system technology offers potential IMAX viewersÃ¢â¬â¢ alternative sources of entertainment. The internet, live play, TV programs and cables are also substituting technologies. b). PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces IMAX operating in three industries: photographic equipment and supplies industry, motion and picture and video production and distribution industry. Barriers to entryÃ This industry requires upfront investments to develop technologies, relationship with producer and access to the distribution channels. IMAX held 46 patents and has seven patents pending in the United States, in order to enter this industry, potential competitors must develop their substitute technologies, or take the risks of copying IMAXÃ¢â¬â¢s patented technologies, andÃ both are very costly. IMAX is achieving economies of scale, the more movies released in IMAX format, the more the IMAX system installed are utilized. IMAX is also updating their technologies and making improvement to lower the costs of operations, therefore the learning curve cost advantages act as a barrier to entry. The barrier to enter this industry is high. Threats of substitutes Live plays, sport events, TV programs (big screen TV, cable, and satellite), the internet, DVD, home theater projection and sound system are all alternatives of IMAX movie for consumers to entertain themselves in a different way. These substitutes also prevent IMAX from raising the ticket price. The threats of substitutes are high. Suppliers The suppliers are vendors who provide the critical elements involved in IMAXÃ¢â¬â¢s projectors and camera systems, film making talents (actors, post-production workers), other studios (Hollywood, Disney, SKG DreamWorks etc.), and movie distributers (theater chain). The suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ power is low because by releasing movies in IMAX format and opening more IMAX screens will increase the box office revenue for all the parties involved. IMAX does not pay top stars to make movies. They pay the actors whose median salary is $17 per hour. IMAX has most its post-production work done by its wholly-owned subsidiary. IMAX purchases its equipment components from vendors with whom it maintained long-term relationships. Buyers Buyers are people who are willing to pay for the IMAX movie tickets, and theater chain has IMAX systems installed in their theaters. IMAX doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t rely on certain type of buyers. The buyer range is very wide, and from different demographic. They are not likely to be price sensitive because the majority IMAX audience with average household income of more than $70000. The product offered by IMAX is much differentiated, and buyers cannot get the same watching experience anywhere else. Overall, the buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ power is low. Rivalry The rivalry is low because IMAX was founded as the only company in the world that was involved in all aspects of large format films. IMAX doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t haveÃ direct competitor in this industry. Even though some of the moviegoer may choose the traditional theater instead of watching IMAX, most the IMAX audience are willing to pay extra $3 to $5 to experience the unique IMAX features and some of them already watched the same movie in the traditional theater before. Additionally, only IMAX movies have long lifespans in the theater circuit. In conclusion, I think this industry is attractive. c). Key opportunities and threats Opportunities: Large format film industry is emerging industry, and this industry is driven by technological innovations, changes in demand, and customer needs. IMAX can utilize the first-movers advantages. IMAX has the technological leadership, and also obtains the patent protections that enhance their performance. IMAX has the opportunities to tie up the strategically valuable resources, which are the relationships with independent filmmakers, and distribution channel such as theater chains, so that it can success in this industry Threats: IMAX is a relatively small firm compared to a rival studio, so they might be bought, and becomes a part of another company. IMAX is not able to maintain their brand image if so many Hollywood movies released in IMAX format. 3. VRIO (25 points) Valuable Rare Inimitable Organized Competitive implications Technological leadership Yes Yes Yes Yes Sustainable competitive advantage Locations Yes Yes No Yes Temporary competitive advantage Relationships with other studios and theaters Yes No No Yes Competitive parity Brand image Yes Yes Yes Yes Sustainable competitive advantage Cash flow No No No Yes Competitive disadvantage The technologies allow IMAX display the large format film features on giant screen to attract customers. Because of the patent protection, it is rare and hard to copy. IMAX invested in their R&D, and received grants and award from third parties, so it is organized. By locating itself in institutional environment, IMAX creates a unique brand and attract different group of audience, so it is valuable. It is rare because not so many entertaining facilities opened in this environment. This strategy is not hard to imitate. It is organized because some of the IMAX films were educational and entertaining, and involved documentaries of natural and scientific wonders, so it valid to have IMAX in these locations. Convert other studiosÃ¢â¬â¢ movies into IMAX format increase the IMAX ticket revenue, so it is valuable. The alliance with other filmmakers also saving IMAXÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing expenditure. It is not rare because the Hollywood movies also released on DVD, pay-per-viewÃ format. People can also watch movies on TV and internet. It is not costly to imitate. It is organized because not all the Hollywood movies are released in IMAX format, it must be carefully chosen. The brand image is valuable because the large films features and unique watching experience are only associated with this brand name. It is rare because this product can only be provided by IMAX. It is hard to copy because this brand image is developed over long time, and IMAX has the first mover advantage. The company R&D and new services are supporting this brand image in terms of innovation and cost saving, so it is organized. The cash flow is not valuable because this company has negative net income for 2006 and 2007. The fact that IMAXÃ¢â¬â¢s debt has been downgraded is an indication that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s liquidity is questionable. It is organized because IMAX is trying to solve this problem by signing new service agreement, which would lower its operational capital requirements and help it pay off its debt. More box office revenue is expected by converting more commercial movies into IMAX format. 4. Based on your analysis, would you recommend proceeding with and expanding the strategy to exhibit Hollywood movies? Should the firm retrench? (20 points) Pro: Hollywood movies are the most popular movies in the world, by releasing more Hollywood movies in IMAX format, more audience will be attracted by the combination of the movie and unique watching experience. This is the quickest way to make revenue in order to improve the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial situation. This strategy also allows IMAX to take advantage of marketing campaigns launched by the studios therefore to save the marketing expenses. Because Hollywood movies has the most market shares, and this high demand will stimulate the theater owners to open more IMAX screens. It gives IMAX the opportunity to attract more viewers and expand the core audience. IMAX can make more revenue by signing more service agreements with traditional theaters, and make profits by maintaining the system and sharing ticket revenue. If IMAX is releasing more Hollywood movies, share price is likely to go up, and create more value for shareholders. The more confident the stakeholders are, the easier for IMAX to raise capital to focus on technology R&D and further differentiate its products. The digital re-mastering technology reduced converting costs. Converting other studioÃ¢â¬â¢s movie is now making more profits and cost less. Con: Screening re-formatted movie is not as profitable as screening IMAX own movies, and makes IMAX takeÃ the risk of diluting its brand image. Releasing more Hollywood movies may let people question IMAXÃ¢â¬â¢s educational function. The violence and sex contents in Hollywood movie may drive parents and their children away. Screening more Hollywood movies will benefit IMAX. It increases the revenue and the number of audience; therefore I recommend proceeding with and expanding the strategy to exhibit Hollywood movies. In long term, because IMAX has all these great technologies, and more stable financial supports, they should focus on developing its own movies. IMAX also should launch more marketing campaigns to promote its movies in order to maintain the brand image, and place more emphasis on its educational and entertaining functions. IMAX may develop some sub brands for example like, Smart Imax Kids, or Learning with Imax which only located at institutional environments and integrate with the ride simulation packages to target specific demographics. This action will strengthen IMAX brand image and make the young generations and potential Hollywood moviegoers like these brands and become real IMAX fans when they grow up.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the stage was used as a way to break the barriers of gender norms. In his creation of Hamlet, Shakespeare uses the voice of Ophelia as a means to battle the gender norms that had been placed on Elizabethan society. A good women was seen as someone that was quiet and submissive. If a man could not control a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s tongue, there would be no chance that the man would be able to control her body. Though OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s character was more than capable of exhibiting reason, the control that her father, Polonius, held over her let Ophelia to the the madness that would claim her life by the end of the play. On the other side of the gender spectrum, Hamlet, a prince that should be have been more than capable ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦MerchantÃ¢â¬â¢s representations claim that Ã¢â¬Å"both nature and women are subordinate and essentially passiveÃ¢â¬ furthering the proof that women are held at a lower standard than men (Merchant 9). The sexuality of women is also compared to animals, furthering the idea that women appeared closer to animals than men on the Great Chain of Being. Hamlet emphasises his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality as being animalistic when confronting the King and Queen about their incestual marriage, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"she would hang on him/As if increase of appetite had grown/by what it fed onÃ¢â¬ (1.2.143). Hamlet supplements GertrudeÃ¢â¬â¢s animalistic sexuality by claiming that Ã¢â¬Å"a beastÃ¢â¬ who lacks reasoning capabilities Ã¢â¬Å"would have mourned [the death of her husband] longerÃ¢â¬ rather than marrying her brother-in-law, which was an incestuous act (1.2.150). In Elizabethan England, it was considered indecent and illegal to carry out an act of incest and, by copulating the marriage, Gertrude is acting in a way that does not show any reasoning. Hamlet ends his soliloquy by stating that he Ã¢â¬Å"must hold [his] tongueÃ¢â¬ rather than demanding his mother acknowledge her lacking position on the Great Chain of Being. Merchant states that women are Ã¢â¬Å"imbued with a far greater sexual passionÃ¢â¬ rather than by logic which solidifies their position on the Great Chain of Being according to Elizabethan standards. One of the strongest written female characters inShow MoreRelatedThe Madness Of Hamlet And Ophelia1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Madness of Hamlet and Ophelia Hamlet is one of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous plays. In it, a young, Danish prince struggles with the death of his father and the betrayal of his mother. This struggle is so profound; it shakes its main character Hamlet to the core and brings him to the brink of sanity. Shakespeare uses madness to convey important information throughout the play especially through Hamlet and his love interest, Ophelia. Hamlet does not always appear to be mad, in fact throughoutRead MoreAnalysis Of Hamlet And Ophelia In Hamlet1812 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages1.) Hamlet and Ophelia are by far the most complex characters in the play, and I believe the reason for their demise their fathers. Claudius, Polonius, and Hamlet senior are all the blame for Hamlet and Ophelias mental breakdown. This is because he came back as a ghost and test are soft hearted hero to murder his uncle, Hamlet was grieving and peace up until the point is ghost daddy arrived and told him the truth about his untimely death. Its sugge sted by Amanda Mabillard, Ã¢â¬Å"Hamlet was more or lessRead MoreHamlet And Ophelia And Women In Shakespeares Hamlet1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbonded in the eyes of God, solidified by the church. Hamlet adored the connection between his mother and late father. However, following his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder, the lack of sympathy from his mother alters his outlook on the institution of marriage. 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Although he did break up with her at one point during the play and said he did not love her, it was obviousRead MoreThe Madness Of Hamlet And Ophelia1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLiterature Period 6 11 December 2015 The Madness of Hamlet and Ophelia Psychotic behavior is prevalent in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet as two of his characters, Hamlet and Ophelia, exhibit madness during the play. The play commences after Claudius killed King Hamlet, leaving him in purgatory. Hamlet, after discovering this fact, feigns madness, which he calls an Ã¢â¬Å"antic dispositionÃ¢â¬ (1.5.192) in his plot for revenge to ultimately free his father. Ophelia, on the other hand, succumbs to madness after theRead More Essay on Hamlet and its Ophelia1968 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesHamlet and its OpheliaÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet there is an innocent young lady who comes to an undeserved and unbecoming end. She is Ophelia, the subject of this essay. Ã Bryan N. S. Gooch in Review of The Shapes of Revenge: Victimization, Vengeance, and Vindictiveness in Shakespeare, presents Ophelia as the powerless victim: Ã Harry Keyishian [. . .] clearly presents in Chapter I, Victimization and Revenge: Renaissance Voices, a useful survey of the problemRead MoreOphelia and Hamlet in The Tragedy of Hamlet Essay1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOphelia and Hamlet In 1600, William Shakespeare composed what is considered the greatest tragedy of all time, Hamlet, the tragedy of the Prince of Denmark. His masterpiece forever redefined what tragedy should be. Critics have analyzed it word for word for nearly four hundred years, with each generation appreciating Hamlet in its own way. While Hamlet conforms, without a doubt, to Aristotles definition of a tragedy, one question still lingers. 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Ophelia is a very strange character, masked behind her good looks and charm she is an innocent and sweet girl who loves life. This is a good thing but is also bad. Due to her father realizing this it causes conflict between her father , Polonius and Hamlet. Polonius thinks young Hamlet wants oneRead More Essay on the Oppression of Ophelia in Hamlet1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMale Oppression of Ophelia in HamletÃ Ã In The Tragedy of Hamlet, Shakespeare developed the story of prince Hamlet, and the murder of his father by the kings brother, Claudius. Hamlet reacted to this event with an internal battle that harmed everyone around him. Ophelia was the character most greatly impacted by Hamlets feigned and real madness - she first lost her father, her sanity, and then her life. Ophelia, obedient, weak-willed, and no feminist role model, deserves the most pity of
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Running head: HEALTH CARE SYSTEM EVOLUTION PAPER Health Care System Evolution Paper University of Phoenix Sandra Walther/ HCS 310 October 20, 2009 Understanding the roller-coaster experience with the use of market forces in health care over the past ten years provides important context for discussions of likely future developments in the nature of competition (Lesser, 2007). The period began with acceptance of managed care transforming the organization of medical care delivery and proceeded to a period in which many of the changes were reversed. This paper begins with observations on competition in 1995, which is slightly past what one might call the peak of managed careÃ¢â¬â¢s influence. It goes on to describe the market and policyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The industry was highly profitable at the time, mostly because cost trends came in below expectations at the same time that premiums were set, for several consecutive years (Lesser, 2007). Many insurers were entering new markets in 1995, often spurred by the belief that this would be the last opportunity to do so (Lesser, 2007). Entry typically involved purchasing a relatively small local plan and expanding it, often through setting premiums low in cost. The rapidly growing Medicare plan market was considered the most attractive segment at the time (Lesser, 2007). This likely occurred because payments from Medicare were pegged to costs in the traditional program, which were increasing at a higher rate than costs for managed care plans. Managed care transformed the health industry. Companies that were most successful in offering managed care products, especially HMOs, were those that had started up as local or regional HMOs. Traditional insurers tended not to be good at this, and one (Aetna) later acquired a large regional HMO (U.S. HealthCare) and put the HMO executives in charge of the entire operation (Lesser, 2007). United HealthCare, which started as an HMO company, later acquired a large traditional insurer to expand its reach. Blue Cross and Blue Shield (BCBS) plans lost market share to other insurers, although they continued to be domina nt insurers in many markets (Lesser, 2007). Many hospitals entered the insurance business around thisShow MoreRelatedHealth And Health Care System1336 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGood health can be seen as important contribution of a high function thriving society. Health is defined in many ways; however I particularly identify with the World Health Organization definition of health as the state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing, not just the lack of disease. The way the United States perceives health reflects throughout the health care system. 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As a result of the catastrophic World War I, many he alth providers wereRead MoreIn The Health Care System Essay1760 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Interprofessionalism in the Health Care System Gisselle Molina Diaz Keiser University Interprofessionalism in the Health Care System Many years ago in the primitive age men used to work in different disciplines where the primary goal was protect their communities to survive. In that Era, farmers, hunters and fishermen formed an interdisciplinary team in the same environment to provide wellbeing to their tribes. Likewise, nowadays health care providers can collaborate in differentRead MoreIn The Health Care System Essay1756 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesin the Health Care System Many years ago in the primitive age men used to work in different disciplines where the primary goal was protect their communities to survive. In that Era, farmers, hunters and fishermen formed an interdisciplinary team in the same environment to provide wellbeing to their tribes. 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Once it is time for your appointment the parasitic disease leishmaniasis has already spread through most of the body. A few weeks later doctors declare you dead, your family is angry at the V.A. health care system because you did not receive health care sooner. The U.S. veteranÃ¢â¬â¢s health care system fails veterans due to their long wait times but can be fixed by applying the triage system. In the current system, you are given an appointmentRead MoreA Universal Health Care System1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA universal health care system All Americans should have access to healthcare despite their ability to pay. Americans should have access to healthcare because no American should go in debt in order to be seen by a Doctor. Any American that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have health insurance because they cannot afford private health insurance should have an option for a government ran insurance system. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019
Two Views of Violence It is easy to interpret that the world is more violent today than in the past, when violence is present on many television and radio channels and dispersed so liberally throughout the internet. The truth of the matter, however, is that physical violence has always been a part of our lives. Beginning with the first murder in the Bible by Cain, an early example of violence in literature, physical violence has often been a part of what one reads. In comparing the novel Maggie: A Girl of the Streets by Stephen Crane, and the novel Deadwood DickÃ¢â¬â¢s Doom by Edward Wheeler, one can see that both novels portray many types of physical violence, that there is not necessarily a relationship between the physical violence andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In retaliation, little Jimmie Ã¢â¬Å"kicked repeatedly at his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s shinsÃ¢â¬ (Crane 44). Most of the main characters in this novel were uneducated, because they had to start work early in life. This is evident in their ma nner of speech. Their lack of education kept them from realizing the effects alcohol has on violence, and they drank a lot. Every time they drank, they became more violent. Jimmie is happiest, though, when he has Ã¢â¬Å"a dollar in his pocketÃ¢â¬ (Crane 47). When he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t, he becomes despondent, and then violent. When comparing the two novels, however, Deadwood Dick does not make a connection between low-socioeconomic standing, and violence. Piute Dave is a Ã¢â¬Å"well-heeled but notoriousÃ¢â¬ young gambler. If one were to consult a thesaurus, one would see that the antonym for Ã¢â¬Å"well-heeledÃ¢â¬ is Ã¢â¬Å"poor.Ã¢â¬ One knows Dave is not poor, also, because he and his band of ruffians did not take long to discover Ã¢â¬Å"paying dirtÃ¢â¬ (Wheeler 1). Nevertheless, he and his band are certainly violent. Even the government officials are Ã¢â¬Å"cognizant of the lawlessness within the borders of Death Notch,Ã¢â¬ and they hesitate to interfere (Wheeler 1). With no one to stop them, they continue to fight. Hank Shakespeare, the Poet, is the Ã¢â¬Å"bully over all, and always ripe for a spreeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"never backward about waltzing right into a quarrelÃ¢â¬ (Wheeler 8). One views a stabbing when Piute DaveShow MoreRelatedSocrates And Machiavelli s Views On Violenc e And Violent Actions1687 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSocrates and Machiavelli hold vastly different views on violence and violent actions, the former advocates strongly that it is always better to be harmed rather than to harm while the latter argues that violence is essential, when used correctly, in order to gain and maintain power. These contrasting views on violence both hold merit, yet the question of which view is more corrupting depends strongly on what corruption is defined as, and thus, which view fits this definition. Socrates is determinedRead MoreAugustine And Tertullian s Theories On War And Violence1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA topic that seems very intriguing is Augustine and TertullianÃ¢â¬â¢s theories on war and violence. This paper will discuss the two main theories on violence in the Christian tradition. Throughout history, Christians have had different perspectives on violence. Some of the accounts are on the pacifist side, while others are on the side that violence is necessary in some instances. The two leading authors on violence are Tertullian and Augustine. Tertullian seems to base his facts more on the Bible,Read MoreThe Psychoanalysts of Violence Essay1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestheories on violence. The implication of both theories is represented in the film that has captured the understanding of both insightful phenomena. FanonÃ¢â¬â¢s views on violence are it unifies individuals into forming a complex unit organism that works together, rinses, in addition it is presented as an effective and productive mean that support the process of decolonization. In contract, ArendtÃ¢â¬â¢s theory detaches the concept of violence from power and emphasizes that the driven reasons for violence is anti-politicalRead MoreHypodermic Syringe Model1453 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesaudience with their beliefs, of whom would automatically agree with this view. The Hypodermic Syringe Model notes a direct correlation between violence portrayed in the media and anti-social behaviour in society. This view is supported by Bandura et al (1963) who investigated whether media content caused violence in children. Bandura showed the children real violence, film violence and violence in a cartoon. All of these acts of violence were towards a Bobo Doll. Children were allowed into a room withRead MoreSimilarities Between Socrates And Machiavelli1084 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesViolence is a tool. Humans have possessed this tool since before stones were used to alter the natural world around them, and have employed it in every way imaginable. Mighty uses of violence throughout humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s stay on earth eventually called for the profound reflection upon our ancient tool, and many philosophers and thinkers rose to the challenge. Perhaps the greatest among them were Socrates and Machiavelli, whose ideas regarding violence and its ideal usage to us inspire d countless other prominentRead MoreFamily Relationships Encourage Interpersonal Violence Essay721 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesFamily Relationships Encourage Interpersonal Violence As time passes, many advancements in technology and safety are made. But through all the breakthrough and upcoming, a major factor exists in the world: violence. As people progress in these conditions, violence also enhances. Violence exists everywhere one looks and it is impossible to rid people of it. No matter what the human race tries, it will be defeated by this Ã¢â¬Å"presenceÃ¢â¬ . Violence is found everywhere, whether on the television,Read MoreAnalysis Of The Outsiders By Frederick Douglass1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdeterminantal. Two sub-themes of this are that isolation, which is brought on by prejudice and stereotypes, is the father of violence and that fierce loyalty can be a destructive and dangerous force which may drive people apart. In The Outsiders, the theme of isolation, caused by prejudice and stereotypes, being the father of violence is clearly evidenced. As the Socs and Greasers, who judge each other based on nothing more than class, are isolated from each other, the violence and battles betweenRead MoreGreek Vrs Christian Views1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Christian view of evil and the Greek view of evil are complete opposites as depicted in Dante AlighieriÃ¢â¬â¢s play The Divine Comedy: Inferno compared to Euripides play Medea. The Christian view differs from the Greek account of evil by the belief in God. The Christian view has clear boundaries of good and bad behavior as shown in Inferno while the Greek belief is that nothing is inherently evil as seen in Medea. The Christian and Greek views differ on the punishment directly related or unrelatedRead MoreHum/114 University of Phoenix Material Essay687 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSolving The reader has chosen Media Violence as his topic: Media violence promotes violent behavior is a problem. (1).The problem is that in the last four decades, the government and the public health amassed an impressive body of evidence identifying the impact of media violence on children. Since 1969, when President [Lyndon] Johnson formed the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, the body of data has effectively grown and grown and it leadsRead MoreIs Media Violence Pernicious?983 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIs Media Violence Pernicious? In recent decades, the emergence of television and the internet have made information and entertainment alike more accessible than ever before. By extension, this increased availability encompasses violent entertainment as well. As access has risen, media violence has become a rather contentious issue. There is currently a stark division surrounding the topic between those who believe that violent media is pernicious, and those who believe it is harmless, or even cathartic
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Leadership Theories for US Based companies. Answer: Introduction Leaders are the one that lead a group of people or guide entire organizations to achieve and accomplish the goals and targets of the organization. There are various leadership theories that are applicable on organizations. Leaders are as essential part of organization as they are the ones that lead an entire team and understand the problems that they face. Leaders have great roles and responsibilities to play. Leaders are responsible for planning, forming a strategic plan and implement it in organizations (Aaker Joachimsthaler, 2012). It is also responsible for creating a vision for the company and motivates the workers to work hard so that they are able to fulfill the goals and targets of the organization. The inefficient leaders can create havoc in the organization due to its mismanagement. Same was the case with Enron where due to the mismanagement of the leaders the entire organization had to face loss. The company lost market confidence due to the loss of the profit and the fin ancial plan that the company applied. The main purpose of the assignment is to identify the issues that the organization faces and how the leadership theories can be applied to the issues of the organization. There are various leadership theories such as Great Man theory, Participative leadership, situational leadership, contingency theories and transactional leadership (Daft, 2014). Comprehension The case study of Enron is complex as well as simple. It is simple because the problems that the organization faces have to do with general terms like leadership, culture, unethical behavior of the managers and rewards. It is complex because the organizations financial ability and plan is difficult and complex. Since the company is US based the report analyzes the corporate culture within USA and the key issues for Enron. Enron was formed in the year 1986 from the merger with various other gas companies. In fifteen years the company diversified its products and services related to natural gas, electricity and communications. The main problem with organization is that it simply ran out of cash. The market lost its confidence on organization due to the loss that it is facing and the rise in the stock borrowings (Enron Case Study - History, Ethics and Governance failures, 2016). The work or the corporate culture in USA varies across different industries and in different part of the countries. It is also essential for the employees to respect the work relationship with the superiors of an organization. The main key points of US business culture are individualism, competitiveness, efficiency, informality and openness to innovation and change. The values in the organization greatly affect the etiquette and behavior at the workplace. It is also greatly influenced by the behavior of the individuals (Spector, 2014). The work culture of USA is both professional as well as casual in nature. The work culture and dressing style in USA varies from different countries. The work schedules are flexible in nature while people prefer to dress casually at work. It is mostly informal in nature. It also lacks hierarchy between managers and theory subordinates. All the employees are treated equally without any discrimination. Americans prefer privacy in their work and does not like anyone entering their private life (Markham, 2015). Analysis and problem diagnosis Enron faced many challenges and issues in its operation. The major problem was that the organization simply ran out of cash and it failed due to loss of the confidence of the market. The debt condition of the organization was continually rising. The business of Enron had failed that lead the entire organization and the people associated with it to suffer. The major reason for the failure of the organization was not loss of market confidence but due to fail in leadership skills. Many leaders were involved in unethical practices and involved in creating false earnings. The organization was involved in hiding the false losses and creating unnecessary rise in the prices of assets to cover the cost (McLean Elkind, 2013)..One such example of unethical practices is the transfer of energy out of California that led to blackouts and unnecessary increase in the price of electricity. This action was taken to generate extra profit from energy and gas. The problem with the leaders of Enron is th at they are very smart and aggressive and use only those policies that benefit the organization and not the employees or the customers. The most important issues were that the stakeholders and the customers were not happy with the price of the stocks of the company and the unethical practice that it is involved in. It is essential for the leaders to follow ethical code of practice and conduct the business efficiently. The leaders were also involved in conflicts sue to which many of them were sued. The reason was that the directors were involved in trading with sponsorships and inner trading (Foti et al., 2014). The key determinant of the ethical culture is respect, integrity, communication and excellence. The senior management plays an essential role in setting ethical culture for its organization. The reason for erosion of the value of the organization was the culture of the company that includes individualism, innovation and unethical way of creating profit. The unethical practices were not only followed by the directors but also the employees of the organization. The main issue with Enron was the reckless and ruthless behavior that it showed to its employees (Tiftik et al., 2015). The example of such behavior is the firing of employees without giving any warning notice prior to termination. The review of the committee was also false as the performance appraisal of the employees was not made on how well they perform but on the basis of profit that the employees earn. The lack of ethical culture and practice greatly affected the position and condition of the organization as the company was declared as bankrupt (Guetterman Mitchell, 2016). The situation that Enron faced was unavoidable. The leaders could have used the alternate methods to raise profit in spite of adopting the unethical codes of practice. The main issue of the case study is unethical practice that the leaders follow. There are three leadership theories that are related to ethical leadership. These include transformational leadership theory, spiritual leadership theory and authentic leadership theory. Authentic leaders are the ones that give emphasis on how they behave morals, ethics, strengths and knowledge. Spiritual leadership is based on ethics and values that are in context to religious texts. This involves incorporating integrity in its work organization. Transformational leadership deals with the change in the lifestyle of peoples behavior in society. The leadership ethical theories include incorporating the ethical decision making (Spector, 2014). Theory and practice Corporate culture has a great impact on leadership. There are various ways leadership can affect culture. Both the culture and leadership of an organization plays an essential role in determining the behavior of the organization. It is crucial for the benefit and success of the organization. Culture of an organization helps in determining the criteria of the leadership of the organization. Organizational culture is the beliefs and values that exist in an organization. The core values of an organization starts with the leadership as the behavior of individual is greatly affected by the culture and values that they hold. The culture of the organization helps the employees know whether the action is acceptable and feasible or not. Culture is the rights and norms that the organization posses (Abdullah et al., 2015). Leaders influence the organization culture as they are the creators of the culture. Leaders are the ones that adjust according to the culture of the organization in order to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization. This also helps in increasing the job satisfaction of employees. Organizational culture is positively correlated with the culture of the organization. This is evident from the case study of Enron a US based company (Landis et al.,2014). Due to the inefficiency of the leaders the culture of the organization is greatly hampered. The unethical practice of the work that is conducted by the leaders of the organization is followed by its staff members as well that hampers the culture of the entire organization. There are many ways by which the leadership can influence the culture of the organization. Few to be specified are collectivism versus individualism. If the company has Collectivist Company culture that is socially conscious then it is the millennias that will be interested to work in organization. While in case of individualist culture the employees will work to appease the managers and higher level executives of the company (Agosto et al., 2013). The organizations success also greatly depends on the attitude and behavior of the organization. A boss should be the one that is able to motivate the employees and influence them in positive way. Culture and leadership is a two way phenomenon. Organizational culture influences the leaders and it is the leaders that also influence the culture of the organization. Changing culture is a difficult and complex process if it is prevailing in social and cultural norms. A cultural norm is the behavior and values that everyone in a group posses and it is of similar kind. Every society has a cultural norm. Leaders shape and form culture and they themselves are formed by culture of the organization. The theories of the leadership tend to follow the societal norms and are based on the culture of the organization. There is a difference as to how the society sees the world and how the leadership theories see the world (Chhokar et al., 2013). There are five primary mechanisms that a leader can use to influence an organizations culture. These include attention, reaction to crises, role modeling, allocation of rewards and criteria for selection and dismissal. These assumptions reinforce and encourage behavioral and cultural norms within an organization. The organization used five mechanisms to reinforce a culture that was morally flexible opening the door to ethics degeneration, lying, cheating and stealing (Chhokar et al., 2013). Recommendations Leaders are the ones that motivate and influence the employees of the organization. Leaders can prevent or curb the unethical behavior in an organization especially in the case where the leaders themselves are involved in practicing unethical codes of conduct. As in case of Enron there are many alternatives ways to earn the profit and cover up the loss in spite of using unethical practice. The leaders of the organization should that the employees with care and not by aggressive nature (Johnston Marshall, 2016). It is essential to issue the warning sign before terminating any employee. The performance of the employees should not be marked on the basis of the income that they earn but it should be marked on the basis of the contribution of employees towards organizations performance. The employees rely on the managers and leaders for the direction on how they should conduct themselves in an organization. It is the leaders or the managers that make the decisions based on ethics. The le aders are responsible for monitoring the employees behavior and check whether the employees are following the ethical codes of practice (How Cooking the Books Works, 2005). There are three processes of business strategy against which the success of the business depends. This includes suitability that defines whether the strategy will work or not, second is feasibility that explains whether it is feasible to make the operations work and the third is acceptability. Rationale of the strategy is dealt with suitability and the tools used to evaluate suitability are decision tree and strategic options. The resource that is required to implement the strategies is feasibility. Acceptability deals with the expectations of the stakeholders (Amernic Craig, 2013) Conclusion Leadership is a skill that is required to manage the working of the organization. Leaders are the ones that motivate the entire team and set a clear vision of the organizations to achieve the targets. It is essential for the leaders to indulge in ethical codes of practice to make the organization sustainable and lead it to a path of success. As studied in the case of Enron since the leaders are involved in unethical practice the employees of the organization also indulge in unethical practice. This lead the company into a serious trouble as it simply ran out of cash. There are many ways that the organization can use to resolve the issues that are ethical in nature. References Aaker, D. A., Joachimsthaler, E. (2012).Brand leadership. Simon and Schuster. Abdullah, N. H., Shamsuddin, A., Wahab, E. (2015). Does organizational culture mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment.International Journal of Organizational Leadership,4, 18-32. Agosto, V., Dias, L., Kaiza, N., McHatton, P., Elam, D. (2013). Culture Based Leadership and Preparation: A Qualitative Metasynthesis of the Literature. Amernic, J., Craig, R. (2013). Leadership discourse, culture, and corporate ethics: CEO-speak at news corporation.Journal of Business Ethics,118(2), 379-394. Chhokar, J. S., Brodbeck, F. C., House, R. J. (Eds.). (2013).Culture and leadership across the world: The GLOBE book of in-depth studies of 25 societies. Routledge. Daft, R. L. (2014).The leadership experience. Cengage Learning. Enron Case Study - History, Ethics and Governance failures. (2016). Applied-corporate-governance.com. Retrieved 23 June 2016, from https://www.applied-corporate-governance.com/enron-case-study.html Foti, R., Hansbrough, T. K., Epitropaki, O., Coyle, P. (2014). Special issue: Dynamic viewpoints on implicit leadership and followership theories.The Leadership Quarterly,25(2), 411-412. Guetterman, T. C., Mitchell, N. (2016). The role of leadership and culture in creating meaningful assessment: A mixed methods case study.Innovative Higher Education,41(1), 43-57. How Cooking the Books Works. (2005). HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 23 June 2016, from https://money.howstuffworks.com/cooking-books7.htm Johnston, M. W., Marshall, G. W. (2016).Sales force management: Leadership, innovation, technology. Routledge. Landis, E. A., Hill, D., Harvey, M. R. (2014). A synthesis of leadership theories and styles.Journal of Management Policy and Practice,15(2), 97. Markham, J. W. (2015).A financial history of modern US corporate scandals: From Enron to reform. Routledge. McLean, B., Elkind, P. (2013).The smartest guys in the room: The amazing rise and scandalous fall of Enron. Penguin. Spector, P. (2014). Introduction: The problems and promise of contemporary leadership theories.Journal of Organizational Behavior,35(5), 597-597. Tiftik, H., KÃâÃ ±lÃâÃ ±, Ãâ¦Ã ¾., Saglam, M. (2015). Leadership Theories and Comparison of Them.Journal of Research in Business, Economics and Management,4(2), 312-322.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Research Proposal on Role of Media Essay Media is the complex term which can be understood as the means of mass communication which work for the supply of people with information of all kinds. The role of media can not be overestimated in the modern society, because the current time is the age of information and information is treated like the most valuable resource. There are many functions which are fulfilled by media. For example, media informs about the current news which has occurred in the country and all over the world. The information can be of the educative and entertaining type and it transmitted with the help of television, the Internet, radio, press, etc. Media does not only inform about the current events on the planet, but also educates people. If we take television, the Internet, scientific journals, etc, we will see numerous programs, movies, audio reports, articles about various issues on history, biology, ecology, geography, philosophy, politics, etc. Media helps people to travel and develop their imagination. If one watches TV and watches movies in the Internet about different countries, their culture, traditions, economy, politics, the worldview of the people living there, he makes a little trip into another world discovering new things without leaving his sofa. Finally, media plays the entertaining role, because one is able to watch films, listen to music, read anecdotes, funny short stories, tabloids, listen to the entertaining radio programs, etc and this activity helps to spend time with pleasure and to increase oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mood. Nowadays no one can imagine his life without media, because it has become an integral part of the human everyday activity. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Role of Media specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Role of Media specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Role of Media specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The role of media is quite serious in the modern society and it can be told that media dictates the order of the human life, because very often the human tastes and worldview, attitude towards various things is influenced by media. The student is able to demonstrate his knowledge and observe the issue about the role of media in the research proposal which analyzes the topic from the alternative point of view focusing on the most troublesome and interesting questions related with media and its impact. The student is asked to present the list of the methods used for the research of the problem of the role of media in order to succeed in writing. A research proposal is the assignment which can be easily written under the control of the Internet and a well-structured free example research proposal on role of media in Pakistan. The student can borrow a few pieces of advice suggested by the writers of a free sample research proposal on role of media and succeed in the process of writing. At EssayLib.com writing service you can order a custom research proposal on Media topics. Your proposal will be written from scratch. We hire top-rated PhD and MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s writers only to provide students with professional research proposal help at affordable rates. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized paper with timely delivery. Just visit our website and fill in the order form with all proposal details: Enjoy our professional research proposal writing service!