Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Design a Flowchart Wk.1 - Essay Example Most conflict in any situation involves communication breakdown to some extent" (pp. 34). It's important to have clarity in one's life. In this case, the author is obviously upset with the job situation. The author wants to be a freelance writer, because the current bottleneck of the author is the author's job. The author's current job is boring and thankless. There is not enough pay; the author feels underutilized and underappreciated. Moreover, the author feels that the current work the author is doing is not meaningful. Having clarity is a positive thing, because one can have more insight into one's activities and their meaningfulness. Since the author's work is not fulfilling, it is hoped the author can find more meaningful work, therefore. To the author, meaningful work means that the author would have the ability to choose what the author wants to do (in writing, for example). The author would not have to do anything the author did not want to do. Work would consist of being ab le to work at a stay-at-home office, in the author's ideal life. According to Bruner (2002), "The capacity of an integrated or multistep process is determined by the portion of the process with the least capacity, or the bottleneck of the system. Thus, identification and relief of bottlenecks are important issues in process management" (pp. 127). First, one must find out (or identify) the bottleneck. Obviously, the bottleneck has been identified as the author's work situation. The author wishes to do a job that is not problematic. In order to solve the problem of the bottleneck, something obviously should be done. The author, therefore, has decided that the answer to this bottleneck of the work situation is to simply change jobs. Warren (2008) comments, "The theory of constraints (TOC) is astrategy that focuses on reducing the influence of bottlenecks on a process" (pp. 455). According to this theory, this management philosophy-the five focusing steps-can help to reduce the problems inherent in getting rid of a bottleneck. The bottleneck in process described here was that of this author's job. This author wanted to obtain new employment that would be satisfying. Mainly, the problem identified was the author's dissatisfaction with current employment. Current employment would be replaced with a freelance writing job that would allow the author to spend less time working and at the same time earn more money. REFERENCES Bruner, R.F. (2002). The portable MBA. USA: Wiley. Dettmer, H.W. (1997). Goldratt's theory of constraints: a systems approach to continuous improvement. USA: ASQ Quality Press. How delays affect processes and change. (2009). Available: http://www.bizmanualz.com/information/2005/03/24/how-delays-affect-processes-and-change.html. Warren, C.S. (2008). Survey of accounting. USA: South-Western College
Monday, July 22, 2019
Miss Essay Evaluate UnitedÃ¢â¬â¢s response to Dave CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s music video. Did the airline handle the incident well? 3. In general, how should firms prepare for the challenges posed by user-generated content and social media? The Ã¢â¬Å"United breaks guitarsÃ¢â¬ video went viral and has had over 7,000,000 views to date. Dave Carroll came up with his protest songs, he said, thinking what Michael Moore would have done, that is, create an instrument able to assemble the angry ones. A wonderful tool for consumer advocacy is a viral video because as said, chances are youre not the only one who is upset. After Dave Carrolls videos, United Airlines was inundated with additional complaints, so it happened that a traumatic experience for one flyer becomes a public relations disaster for United Airlines. United lately responded to Youtube videos, suffering the consequences of a stock price felt of 10%, costing stockholders about $180 million. When social media are involved the best response is the quickest response. United Airlines neglection in reacting caused an out of control media diffusion. United Airlines major error was not to pay attention to the previous incidents of people using social media to voice their frustration. Companies should understand the power of social media for customer interactions and monitor social media sites as part of their social media customer outreach and marketing efforts. A positive reaction of United would have been to use the incident as a positive PR opportunity to show off how they work positively with customers to solve problems. The lesson for any firms is.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
History of Sensory Theatre What does sensory theatre mean to the modern audience? Asone of the oldest art forms and as one of the primeval kinds of humanexpression, the nature of theatre is as varied across the continents aspainting, pottery, sculpture or any of the classic art-forms. Each civilization, each society, each gathering of humankind has had its personalform of theatrical performance from street artists to court jesters to nomadicplayers. Many would say that this variety at the very core of theatrical achievement is what has permitted theatre to take such a respected and crucialpart of our modern societies. Too often it is claimed that our present daylifestyles leave little time for abstract thinking and artistic appreciation orachievement. This is lamentable but thankfully not usually true. One need only observe the continuation of events such as the Welsh National Eisteddfod forhundreds of years to realize that the human desire and need for theatre willnever diminish. However, this is not to say that modern society has not changed theatre. It is only natural that artistic output should be modeled by the lifestyle surrounding it. After all, warlike civilizations such as the Vikings delighted in the narrating of age-old sagas whereas more enlightened peoples like the Ancient Greeks would draw inspiration from mythical dramas which detailed the flaws at the heart of humanity and their relationships with their gods, representing a search for elements greater than themselves. However,we can take it as certain that the theatrical productions of the last fiftyyears have overwhelmingly been part of a resurgence of theatrical diversity. Asthe free market has made nations more accessible to each other, a rise ininterest for all sorts of artistic expression has been felt around the world.Herein, we shall focus on the analysis and comprehension of one of these.Sensory theatre, or at least the old meaning of the term, is not a new concept.At its very core, much of what constitutes theatre relies heavily on the senses,both those of the audience and that of the actors. Nevertheless, at a time whenour fast-paced lifestyle seems to reject anything out of the ordinary or whichcan be labeled as different, it is refreshing to feel that this resurgence hasregenerated one of the truly great aspects of theatre, oft labeled as post-modernistbut one which links so much of relatively recent artistic output across theboundaries of different art forms: Post-modernity,in attacking the perceived elitist approach of Modernism, sought greaterconnection with broader audiences. This is often labelled accessibility andis a central point of dispute in the question of the value of postmodern art.It has also embraced the mixing of words with art, collage and other movementsin modernity, in an attempt to create more multiplicity of medium and message.Much of this centers on a shift of basic subject matter: postmodern artistsregard the mass media as a fundamental subject for art, and use forms, tropes,and materials such as banks of video monitors, found art, and depictions ofmedia objects as focal points for their artPostmodernisms critical stance isinterlinked with presenting new appraisals of previous works. As implied abovethe works of the Dada movement received greater attention, as didcollagists such as Robert Rauschenberg, whose works were initiallyconsidered unimportant in the context of the modernism of the 1950s, but who, bythe 1980 s, beganto be seen as seminal. Post-modernism also elevated the importance of cinema in artisticdiscussions, placing it on a peer level with the other fine arts. This is bothbecause of the blurring of distinctions between high andlow forms, and because of the recognition that cinema representedthe creation of simulacra which was later duplicated in the other arts. (Wikipedia,2005) Inthis dissertation, we shall be analyzing aspects of sensory theatre as has beenexplored and toyed with by some great artisans of the craft. Despite anyproblems we have with wholesale rejection of this type of theatre, in the interestof fair-minded and complete research, we shall pay due attention to theAristotelian school of thought. That which claims that theatre is a particulartype of experience, one from which the audience member should feel cleansed andhave learnt a lesson. This is a valid point of view, one which we shallthoroughly explore in order to see if it is indeed more artisticallyjustifiable than sensory theatre. Afterexploring Aristotles opinions, we shall look in further depth at the nature ofsensory theatre. What does this term mean? How is each sense tapped? Can themelding of experiences of several senses which are simultaneously stimulatedprovide an elevating experience? For this exploration, we shall use the casestudy of Dwr (water in Welsh), a sensory piece of theatre put on in2003, using water, light and various materials to explore reactions amongst itsaudience. The reasons for using this play are that it was an audiovisualexperience as well as a mere theatrical one as projections and cameras were anintegral part of the performance. Furthermore, the sensory effect of theaudience can be better analyzed as members of the audience were also used inthe play, their reactions helping to define the type of sensory experience. However, Dwr also gives us a good example of Brechtian theatre for the number of levels the play takes on. The actors themselves act as facilitators for the audience to receive personal sensory experiences. With only a minority of audience members taking part in the play, we can gain two further levels of emotional depth and complexity. The general background of the audience will see their emotions and senses assailed by the movements, gestures and decisions of those taking part while this minority will be subjected to sensory input and emit feedback with no room for forethought or planning ahead. Thus, we shall provide a very definite and interesting example to back up any clear defining of sensory theatre we come to. We shall also look at how Dwr fits into the patterns of sensory theatre created by Brecht and Artaud and how its attitude towards its audience defines this multi-tiered theatre as one of the crucial points of sensory theatre. However,no analysis of sensory theatre without detailed research into the works ofpioneers of the genre. Here, we have chosen to look at Bertolt Brecht andAntonin Artaud, each for specific reasons. Brechts attitude, utterly inconflict with the age-old Aristotelian views of theatre, helped build hisreputation as an agitateur who decided to stamp his own distinctive markupon an art form he viewed as static. Thus, the habits of Brechtian theatre oftotal acknowledgement of the audience caused as much mirth as it did anger. Onthe other hand, Artaud provided his audience with a completely integralexperience. By using sensory theatre to deny audience members their usual rightto involve themselves in a performance to a degree of their choice, Artaud madesure his plays would deeply shock his audiences. We will be exploring Artaudstechniques as well as his reasons for providing this kind of theatre. It is the goal of this dissertation to highlight the differences that make sensory theatre an integral genre of its own, containing so many outlets for creativity, expression and emotional impact as to make it not only an interesting part of theatre but an essential one. Its recent resurgence will thus provide us with an ideal platform from which to assess its meaning to a modern audience. TheAristotelian view of theatrical norms Goodoratory can blow the walls off brick buildings. Not just in the real world ofpolitical speeches or rallies but in the arts as well. As one of the only formsof human expression where no point of view is unheard, no eventuality unconsidered,no leaf left unturned, theatre has throughout its history naturally overthrownand shrugged off any shackles or conventions attached to it. This idea couldgive rise to an impression of mayhem and anarchy in an art form that had runaway with its own importance. As one of the leading figures in the history ofliterature, Aristotles views on the nature and importance of theatre arewell-documented and naturally thought of as still relevant today. Aristotlehad the very human characteristic of harking back to the good old days, andthinking them much better than the days in which he lived. Taking scant accountof Aeschylus,he regarded Sophoclesand Euripidesas models in tragedy. His chief complaints were that the poets of his own timespoiled their work by rhetorical display; that the actor was often of moreimportance than the play; and that the poets tampered with the plot in order togive a favorite actor an opportunity of displaying his special talent. He saidthat the poets were deficient in the power of portraying character, and that itwas not even fair to compare them with the giants of the former era. (FletcherBellinger, pp.61, 1967) However,in the matter of sensory theatre, we run into an area of some problems. Beingof a conservative mind-set which appreciated theatre for the moral lessonscontained within the narrative, Aristotle worshipped Sophocles with hisstraight and narrow approach to theatrical drama whilst eschewing the work ofhis contemporaries as being too popular, too watered down to meet the needs ofa public desirous of less preaching and more fun within the theatre. Aristotlepossessed perhaps what could be interpreted as a rather narrow view in that hesaw tragedy as the greatest form of dramatic expression, almost utterly passingoff on comedy as mere fluff as compared to tragedy with the great lessonscontained within it. Furthermore, Aristotle also considered tragedy to bemagnificent when it also contained a clear and well constructed narrativeframework and mythological references to the deeds of greater men and gods in anobler past. Although Aristotles writings on these topics did make a lot ofsense, they are considered somewhat restrictive and far too imbued with theirown authority to be seen as of much use today. After all, in a society wherethe possibilities of theatre are slowly catching up with those of television orcinema as directors, playwrights and stage designers are always exploring newavenues of performance, Aristotles three unities of time, place and actionseem ready to be retired. Their far-too stringent requirements of both cast andcrew make them almost impossible to operate in the modern world of freetheatre. This is no longer a society where the writings of one man, whoever he may be, carry enough influence to truly make as significant an impact as in Ancient Greece. It is not to say that Aristotle should be disregarded but concerning sensory theatre, rules relating how plot should be more important than character and how all the action in a tragedy should be centered around a personage of importance to better capture the attention of a fickle audience seem slightly moot. Its relevance is in the fact that much of what is known of theatrical conventions among a lay audience is heavily based on Ancient Greek theatrical philosophy, particularly Aristotle. It is precisely this philosophy that sensory theatre will have to overcome in order to claim its place as a rightful and deserving genre of theatrical achievement across the globe. Visual,auditory, tactileDwr Choosingan example to illustrate the nature of sensory theatre is a tricky balancingact as one must therefore, in some way at least, pre-define ones understandingof the genre. How do we choose between the senses? After all, since the name ofsensory theatre does not make any kind of distinction, do we consider thesenses of sight and hearing more important than the other three since they areoverwhelmingly the most stimulated in matters of theatre? A distinction such asthis would make sense certainly but since sensory theatre is often seen asstanding alone from usual theatre, perhaps it would be unfair to appraise itthanks to assumptions based on more conventional modes of theatre. Instead,the best way to gain a true idea of sensory theatres range of potentialimpacts would be to base an example upon several criteria. Firstly, although itwould be somewhat over-expectant to try and find a play which could tap allfive of our senses, several attempts at sensory theatre have successfullyenga ged audiences on three senses, if not four. Herein has been chosen Dwr,a Welsh piece put on in 2003 in Aberystwyth and then broadcast on S4C on thearts programme, Croma. Theset-up of the piece was simple. The audience were seated on one side of thestage on a raised-up area, overlooking a long perpendicular dinner table. Theinside of the table, rather than being an ordinary flat surface, had beenhollowed in order to form a shallow pool about six inches deep along thetables entire length. The pool was filled with a level amount of clear waterat the bottom of which a table had been set ready for dinner, complete withplates, cutlery, glasses and napkins. Above the audience, shining down upon thetable was a strong projector which reflected the pool of water onto a backprojection screen in a way which magnified and increased the shadows cast byany ripples in the water. Six audience members were asked to be seated at thetable, as if for dinner before being submitted to a range of experiences by theactors whilst cameras recorded their reactions. These sensory experiments allinvolved stimulation of an audience member in matters of sight, sound, taste orfeelin g. We shall look at the manner in which each of these senses was tappedas well as Dwrs technical set-up. Firstof all, if one were to ask any theatre-goers, it would be certain that even themost intermittent of these would claim the two most stimulated senses in thetheatre are that of sight and hearing. Whilst conventional thinking would allowthis to be true, a cynical perspective would add that since our behinds orfeet, depending on posture, contribute much to the enjoyment of a theatricalperformance three senses, not two, must all be satisfied for a performance tobe considered praise-worthy. After all, although stage design is an oftforgotten art among those who are not privileged to the inner workings oftheatre, the choice of venue often signifies how an audience will feel duringthe performance. Stage design is often considered only in terms of sets, propsand technical apparatus whilst the idea of crowd comfort is often overlooked. In the case of Dwr, the crowd comfort was adequate but the truly interesting phenomenon for the audience of this play was that their peers were submitted to the action contained within it. The stage design was such that the light poured onto the water was bright enough to cause the right amount of shadow reflection whilst not blinding either the audience or the actors. This careful use of projection in order to achieve the desired effect was a technique made famous of Josef Svoboda who pioneered the use of audiovisual projection in theatre to enhance the general experience. The stimulation capabilities of a performance, when combined with camera and sound equipment, is vastly heightened thus cementing Svoboda as one of the great names of sensory theatre. Asfar as the audience members who became a part of the performance itself, thesenses stimulated were done so in a way which gave every sense the time tofully absorb the impact of its experience. First of all, each audience memberwas seated at the table in the guise of a dinner guest but asked not to talk toeach other or carry out any action except if indicated to do so by one of thesurrounding cast. First of all, each dinner guest was asked to remove theirshoes and socks before climbing onto the table into the water. The stage itselfwas kept at a warm temperature in contrast to the cold water, making the changein surroundings quite drastic. Then, the audience member was asked to burst aplastic bag full of water with a long hooked pole. The water would thus droponto the audience member along with a fake plaster egg. The audience member would then be lead back to their seat, given a towel to dry off before being given two chopsticks. After breaking the egg on the side of the table, the contents would then be spilt onto the plate just below the surface of the water. Each egg contained some food coloring, spreading across the table along with the ripples, along with a small piece of paper. Each piece of paper showed the face of a man, wearing different emotions, whilst a brief poem on the back seemed to explain the expression, a poem that would be read by one of the surrounding cast to the relevant audience member. The relationship between the pictures and the poems may not have been immediately obvious but the reactions of the audience members were still assured to be both personal, if not natural due to unusual surroundings and odd experiences. These reactions were filmed by the technical crew on video cameras, adding another level of complexity to the performance as the traditional boundaries between cast and crew become blurred. Furthermore, Dwrs entire performance was played out under a constantly shifting pattern of music which although always instrumental would speed up in tone or gently slow down in function of events happening in the play. Thepurpose of using Dwr as an illustration of the modern applications ofsensory theatre and its meaning to a present-day audience is threefold. Firstof all, the timing of the piece and its broadcasting on a national channelalong with subsequent interviews with the chosen audience members proves theinterest placed in it by a major broadcaster as the BBC has major impact uponS4C scheduling. Secondly, the sensual experience of the show provided afascinating outlet for the audience members, both for those who took an activepart or a passive part, to find out more about what constitutes modern sensorytheatre. Although the audience numbers for this show were relatively small and thus can only provide us with a minor cross-section of theatre-goers, the positive feedback gained at the end during the interviews can give a lot of hope as to the future of sensory theatre. Finally, to use an example such as Dwr gives us a view as to what kind of reaction this genre of theatre would meet with. Dwr covers a broad base of sensory theatre as its performance, not only stimulating several of the senses themselves, dealt with a range of theatrical theories and ideologies which we shall look at in further detail. By separating audience members from each other, creating many layers of reality between crew and cast, audience and cast and audience and crew, Dwr rejectedmany traditional aspects of theatrical performance. However, by engaging its audience/cast members with an individual experience through the messages contained within the eggshells and filming their response, Dwr could be said to have engaged with a more conservative Aristotelian version of theatre. Each audience member not involved with the show directly as a dinner guest will have experience the play as a visual and auditive experience but it is for the six members of the audience at each performance that Dwr transcended the limits of ordinary theatre and became a emotional and sensory journey felt by each in their own individual way. Below, we will be casting an eye at the ways in which theatrical pioneers such as Brecht and Artaud tackled the rigours and the conventions of an art form that they viewed as being a free form, lacking in any structural restrictions. Before doing so, we can still observe that even if Dwr did pander even the slightest bit towards an Aristotelian theatre, the main body of its performance was firmly in the territory of Artaud as we can see when applying this passage to precisely the type of theatre Dwr tries to avoid. If people are out of thehabit of going to the theater, if we have all finally come to think of theateras an inferior art, a means of popular distraction, and to use it as an outletfor our worst instincts, it is because we have learned too well what thetheater has been, namely, falsehood and illusion. It is because we have beenaccustomed for four hundred years, that is since the Renaissance, to a purelydescriptive and narrative theater storytelling psychology; it is becauseevery possible ingenuity has been exerted in bringing to life on the stageplausible but detached beings, with the spectacle on one side, the public onthe other and because the public is no longer shown anything but the mirrorof itself. Shakespeare himself is responsible for this aberration and decline,this disinterested idea of the theater which wishes a theatrical performance toleave the public intact, without setting off one image that will shake theorganism to its foundations and leave an ineffaceable scar. If, in Shakespeare,man is sometimes preoccupied with what transcends him, it is always in order todetermine the ultimate consequences of this preoccupation within him, i.e.,psychology. (Artaud,No More Masterpieces, 1976) Evensuch divides as between audience and actors, theatrical conventions that are sohabitual as to often be altogether forgotten, were not sacrosanct enough fordirectors, playwrights and actors such as Brecht, Artaud and Svoboda. TheBrechtian impact or the alienation of theatrical tradition Earlierin this dissertation, it was suggested that Aristotles views on theatre andsubsequent impact thereon had diminished somewhat with the dawn of a time wherethe philosophies of the Ancient Greeks mattered little. However, the centuriesthat his views transcended have signified that they could not dissipate soquickly. Many modern opinions on theatre, however avant-garde or post-modernistthey wish or claim to be, are still formed largely on the back of the opinionsof men such as Aristotle. However, this obstacle would be taken to piece by menand women like Brecht, who wished not to merely co-exist with existing viewsbut confront their defenders and destroy the ideological entrenchment that manytheatre critics had resorted to in the face of the changes sweeping throughtheir beloved art form. In his early plays, Brechtexperimented with dada and expressionism, but in his later work, he developed astyle more suited his own unique vision. He detested theAristotelian drama and its attempts to lure the spectator into akind of trance-like state, a total identification with the hero to the point ofcomplete self-oblivion, resulting in feelings of terror and pity and,ultimately, an emotional catharsis. He didnt want his audience to feelemotionshe wanted them to thinkand towards this end, he determined todestroy the theatrical illusion, and, thus, that dull trance-like state he sodespised. The result of Brechts research was a technique known asverfremdungseffekt or the alienation effect. It wasdesigned to encourage the audience to retain their critical detachment. (Imagi-nation,2003) Thisis not to say though that to achieve such an accomplishment was possible formerely any theatrical commentator. It took men of special gumption, gravitasand guts to dare attack such a powerful establishment as that of traditionaltheatre. Bertolt Brecht was one of these. Blessed with the ability to fightbattles on several fronts whilst still maintaining a clear head, Brecht beganto cause controversy early on in his career. Looking to fulfill a desire formore relevant and modern theatre amongst German theatre-going audiences,Brecht, through plays such as Drums in the Night and with therecognition of director Erich Engel, flirted with an expressionistic style thatbefitted his rising status but left Brecht himself feeling uncomfortable.Although his style was becoming fashionable and it would undoubtedly havebrought him his time in the spotlight, Brecht felt that he should discover aplaywriting identity which was his own and not borrowed from anybody else. Ifwe consider that at this ti me Brecht was writing in post World War I Germany,we can observe the bravery it must have taken for him to make this type ofdecision. Duringthe turbulent years of the socialist rise in Germany and the Weimar Republic,Brecht knew a modest amount of success in both theatre and literature thanks toplays such as In the Jungle of the Cities and his partnership with Engeland Hans Eisler but he was only just beginning to find his feet in a style allof his own. The final step in this direction would be his years with his owncollective of writers, the most famous fruit of which would be the Lehrstuckewhich would form the root of the theatrical changes and theories we thinkof as Brechtian today. Lehrstucke propounded that passive audiences werea thing of the past in matters of theatre and that it was necessary foraudiences to become more actively involved in a performance whilst keeping astrong level of emotional distance in order to remain capable of rational thoughtand criticism. This collection of thoughts would slowly pass into commonpractice in theatrical troupes and communities around the world, a practiceknown as epic theatre. Epictheatre today may seem as historical and passÃÆ'ÃâÃ © as Aristotles views did forBrecht but the truth is that the numerous and varied adaptations of epictheatre have formed much of todays common theatrical practices. Before Brecht,the demarcation between the audience and the actors was sacrosanct. SinceAristotle, the status of the star actor had risen so much that now actors wouldmerely be cast in a role that was known to be in their repertoire, a fact whichcould lead to truly spectacular levels of diva treatment or ridiculouscastings. Take for example Sarah Bernhardt whose notoriety had reached suchproportions that she cast herself as Hamlet. This is not to say there isanything wrong with female actors playing traditionally male Shakespeareanparts but it is the manner in which Bernhardt carried out this casting that madethe situation ridiculous. Aristotle lamented this type of situation as beingone of the great plagues striking tragedy theatre whilst Brecht merely laughedat it and lambasted it in his own style. His patented Verfremdungseffekt (or estrangement effect) was a sweepingly original style which not only acknowledged the audience as a part of a theatrical production and encouraged them to change their own attitudes to theatre. Instead of allowing traditional suspension of disbelief and letting audiences feel as if they were watching a truthful event, Brecht went out of his way to remind them that what they saw was a representation, a mirror onto reality and never reality itself. This was carried out by having actors suddenly break character and address the audience to explain the plot, grossly over-exaggerated props or sets in the middle of an otherwise serious play or great placards on the stage asking the audience to behave in a certain way by ignoring a particular happening or to stare less romantically. These unusual situations for an audience confused them and alienated them from the play, hence the name alienation or estrangement effect. This separation from conventional thea trical theory became very fashionable after the war in both America where he lived until being pestered by HUAC and in communist East Germany where he resided until his death in 1953. The appeal of Brechts type of theatre across the globe speaks volumes about how the traditions of theatre were rejected by a large section of theatre going audiences. The sensory feel of the Verfremdungseffekt were indirect but by creating this new separation of audience and stage in an allegorical as well as in a physical sense, Brechtian theatre enabled its audiences and directors to experiment with new sensations. The greatest example of this is in some of Brechts later plays such as The Good Person of Szechwan and Galileo. For example, in Galileo, the portrait he paints of the astronomer is of a tortured soul wracked between his scientific duty to tell the truth to an unsuspecting world and the threat of vengeance from the dark figure of the Grand Inquisitor. This moral dilemma was planned by Brecht as a way to get his audience to think rationally about the situation and contemplate what they would do in such a situation rather than feeling sorry for Galileo. However, if Brecht had one failing, it was that despite his ability to meld together a myriad of sources into a convincing single narrative, he did not understand the human nature of his public. Persuaded that with the right play, he could force his audience into abandoning their emotional side, whether he realized it or not Brecht was asking people to set aside the precise reason most of them came to the theatre. His theories resulted in a number of epic dramas, among them Mother Courage and Her Children which tells the story of a travelling merchant who earns her living by following the Swedish and Imperial armies with her covered wagon and selling them supplies: clothing, food, brandy, etc As the war grows heated, Mother Courage finds that this profession has put her and her children in danger, but the old woman doggedly refuses to give up her wagon. Mother Courage and Her Children was both a triumph and a failure for Brecht. Although the play was a great success, he never managed to achieve in his audience the unemotional, analytical response he desired. Audiences never fail to be moved by the plight of the stubborn old woman. (Imagi-nation, 2003) Anemotional journey where characters could and should be empathized with orcondemned was much of what has always constituted theatres engagement. Eventhe averagely smart and aware audience member does not need the moral absolutesof right and wrong as claimed by Aristotle but the desire to identify with oneor more of the central characters instead of merely rationalizing about theirfates without feeling was too strong in the vast majority of theatre-goers. Brechtis claimed doubly to be both a modernist or one of the first post-modernists.Although some claims have been made that a taste for his kind of theatre quicklyinspires in the face of so much cynicism, his importance and the size of hisimpact upon world theatre cannot be underplayed. Today, many of his conventionsare so common as to be taken for granted whilst a collective of Brechtiansstill operates and remains as long-standing proof to the glory of his genius. Conventionalrelief in theatre and Artauds rejection of it Everygeneration is locked in a perpetual struggle with those that come both beforeand after to break free from the shackles of their ancestral traditions, carvetheir own identity and thus prepare the way for a similar fight with thegenerations that are to follow. Although social morays may seem to remain stilland constant, this is only an illusion, one that can only too easily be piercedby artistic expression. Artists have often been marginalized as second-ratemembers of society, ones that are not indispensable to the everyday running ofour lives. Seen as not producing useful since all their efforts did not feed,clothe or warm anybody, it became a painful reality that if actors or musicianswanted to survive, they were required to curtail any creativity and pander toprecisely what their audiences desired. While this unfortunate turn of events could be passed off as a mere passage in the history of theatre, it left behind some highly tell-tale signs. The simplest of these is that from the Renaissance onward through the Classical period, theatre had become significant with escapism. The majority of plays, and here one cannot deny Aristotles continuing influence, harked back to former days lamenting a fallen age of glory, honour and noble deeds. Whilst this fond reminiscing was unimpeachable in its desire to awaken a better side of humanity in audiences, it often met with boredom and
Eating Out: A Common Phenomenon Among Malaysians Eating out is a common phenomenon among Malaysians. However, the selection of a restaurant is dependent on the restaurant variety, the consumer personality and the consumption context. With the increase in discretionary income and change in lifestyle, dining out has become a common experience among university students. People begin to have more experiences in dining that lead to customer expect more from the restaurants and are more difficult to satisfy. Restaurant consumption lifestyle is very related to food lifestyle. Kesic and Piri Rajh (1993) stated that food lifestyle can be desribed through behaviour of consumer as a function of individual characteristics and this can be create through the social interaction of psychological and also the past experience of consumer. Dine out is known as consumption of food and drink eaten outside the home which is not obtained from the households stocks. Dine out is easily accesible, as in expensive hawker centers, coffee shops, air-conditioned food courts and fast-food restaurants whereas consumers have the ability to choose types of food and price (Dittmer,2002) Restaurant consumption lifestyle among students depends on convenience of food and also restaurant itself, traditionality of food that they serve, concerning about health and nutrition, environment or atmosphere at the restaurant, the variety of menu that restaurants provided and also the price of food. Food-related lifestyle has five components fisrt is higher-order attributes of food products, second is consequences of using food product, third is shopping script, forth is meal preparation scripts and fifth is usage situations. The striking social, economic transformation, the increases in the types, the absolute number of retail venues and the greater variety of food products can influence the consumer purchasing behavior in restaurant consumption lifestyle. In the aspect of restaurant consumption lifestyle, the frequency that they dining outside of the home can give an idea what make them to dine out, with whom they usually go to dine out, where the location that they prefer and why they choose that place. Dine out is not an option for those who are only has a limited time, it is also has become the favorable choice for those who like to obtain new eating environmnet, changing of menu, and for people who want to spend time with friend, colleagues or family. In order to fulfill the needs, peoples will patronize foodservice establishment. People have certain evaluative foodservice establishment criteria in their mind, such as the quality of the food and service provided ambience and the price. 1.2 Problem Statement Restaurant consumption lifestyle is very general if we want to discuss among all types of consumers. However, in this research will try to understand about the restaurant consumption lifestyle between two major ethnic groups of university students. This research will come out what the motivation purchasing among two races in restaurant selection criteria. Besides that, this research will find out what type of trend nowadays consumers preferred to go to the restaurant, for example what the restaurant selection criteria of restaurant consumers more preferred, why they choose that restaurant, when usually they go there, what they expect when they go to the restaurant and with whom they usually go there. These studies have addressed issues such as the relationship between consumer behaviour, the demand pattern of restaurant consumption lifestyle and factors influencing consumer purchasing behavior. All of these issues are related with restaurant consumption lifestyle between two races of students because these issues are more to social science and behavior of consumers. 1.3 Objectives The objectives of this study are: To investigate the restaurant consumption lifestyle between two ethnic groups of university students. To examine the motivation purchasing in consuming their meal at restaurant. To determine the difference of restaurant selection criteria in normal and special dining out occasion. 1.4 Research Questions Specifically two basic research questions underline this study: Does the consumer behavior influence in the restaurant consumption lifestyle? Is it have differences between two ethnics group of university students in restaurant consumption lifestyle? What the motivation purchasing in restaurant consumption lifestyle between Malay and Chinese students? 1.5 Significance of the Study This paper consists of information on consumers consumption pattern and factors that influence consumers purchasing decision. Indirectly, can understand why university student select one restaurant over the other, the marketer can use marketing strategy effectively to gain market and profit. Besides that, managers also can understand the critical factors that influence customers behavior, loyalty and satisfaction in the food service industry and help them to improve in critical part or areas. All the factors that effect consumers eating out in food service establishment may also directly affect the profitability of the food service operations. Therefore, this study is important to investigate the factors contributing to overall customers satisfaction and repurchase behavior. A food service manager needs to understand this relationship in order to enhance their customers need and satisfaction. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Eating Out In this study, restaurant consumption lifestyle related with the contemporary patterns and the symbolic association of eating out and also related with patterns to social and demographic characteristics of households. Eating out has important implications for comprehensive understanding of nations diet. Eating out become famous trend in many peoples lives now (Koo et al, 1999). Eating out is familiar among single-parent household and also career woman (Elmont, 1995). According to Finkelstein (1989), eating out can give the leisure motive of what they seeing and being seen in public also it can give the entertained by others. Britain showed that consumers increasingly consume their food outside the home (Driver, 1983). As a proportion of food expanding, eating away from home has been increasing since 1950s. Food and its consumption can examine at several different levels and these will depend for ones purpose, whereas attention needs to focus of the following nutrients, ingredients, dishes, meals and cuisine. Eating out has both practical and symbolic significance. People eating out because sometimes out of their necessity and sometimes they eating out because of for pleasure. British Family Expenditure Survey had suggested that people eating out depends on their modes and could be expressed through food consumption (Warde Tomlinson, 1995). The recent official data in UK stated that difference in the social group will give the results difference in the frequency of eating out. The income, age, gender, region, class and household composition will influence consumer eating out. The major leisure motive of eating out can based on Mills belief which is relates to the psychological needs of human being (Mill, 2001). Eating out more than to preventing from suffering because of not enough food. In this research, results can support that people truly enjoy eating when psychologically as a part of leisure motive. In addition, the another aspect of motivation on what causes of behavior, Herzbergs two-factor theory such as hygiene factors and motivation can be apply in finding the results. Lack of concern about hygiene factors can cause of customer dissatisfaction. Eating out had its role in modern consumption (Warde and Martens (1998) and eating out also had its significant because eating out can increase the penetration of commodification and consumer culture in everyday life. Riley (1994) stated that in Britain there were no cultural and psychological factors because consumers tend to evaluate their meal experience at the restaurant they went to. Hygiene factor direct specialist to basic consumption on inexpensive food whereas, motivator give signal for self-identity will act to motivate the customer. People whos have different meal options for different motive will produce the relationship between different types of dining experiences. This is can emphasize that meal can influence the consumers choice of a restaurant meal (June and Smith, 1087). The frequency of eating out may vary, every age group, culture group, social class, and geographical community makes eating out an important from recreation. Eating out on a large scale is an interesting phenomenon of our changing society. Specifically, eating out is defined as patronize to any foodservice establishment by respondents of this study. In this modern society, people eating out for variety of reason, which included avoiding from boredom, to socialize, to have different type of food, taste and convenience ( Tom Powers. 2002). Lewis (1981) considered five factor for eating out which are food quality, menu variety, price, atmosphere and convenience factors. On the other hand, Jones (1996) identified six basic reasons as to why people eating out which are convenience, variety, labor, status, culture or tradition and impulse. Convenience This factor includes those people who are away from some reason, who are physically unable to return at home during normal time and out it conjunction with some other leisure activity. Variety Variety of food is an important factor to attract consumer to one food premise. People, who live in circumstances where the meal experiences are limited, such as in the hawkers stall, may choose to eat out for this reason. Labor The desire to have someone else to prepare food, cook, serve and wash up a meal most certainly influences some peoples decision to dine-out. Status Both for personal and business reasons people may choose to impress their guess by taking them out to a fashionable and expensive restaurant. Culture Eating can be described as a part of our culture heritage and a manifestation of kinship. For example, in Malaysia, celebration of special events such as anniversaries and birthday are often associated with eating out. Impulse This is rather like saying that sometimes people have to no particular reason for eating out, they do so on the spur of movement. However, impulse buying is very significant and that it contributes to sales in the food service industry. 2.2 A Theory of Motivation Consumption Values This theory will discuss about consumption values, explaining why consumer choose to buy or not to buy a specific product. Also discuss why consumers choose one product type over another and why consumers choose one brand over another. This theory consists of five consumption values that can influence consumer choice behavior. The five consumption values are functional value, social value, emotional value, epistemic value, and conditional value. In making a decision, any or all of the consumption values can influence of that. 2.2.1 Functional Value Functional value is defined as alternatives capacity for functional, profitable, or physical performance. An alternative receive the functional value through the utilitarian or profitable and also physical attitudes. Functional value can measured the profile of choice attributes. Generally, functional value is assumed to be the main driver of consumer choice. This assumption comes from Marshall (1890) and Stigler (1950), that strictly expressed in terms of rational economic man. Reliability, durability and price are characteristics that derived from alternatives functional value. For example, the decision to purchase food in the fine dining restaurant must based on their income and ability to buy it. 2.2.2 Social Value Social value is an alternatives association with one or more specific social groups and through positively and negatively stereotyped demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural- ethnic groups. The choice imagery can be measured in profile of social value. The choices involved tangible of highly products and also for goods or service need to be shared with others are often lead by social value. For example, consumer choose to eat at fine dining may be chosen more for social image than for their necessity. Hyman (1942) research about reference groups said that individual behavior is strongly can influence by their group membership. Rogers (1962) and Robertson (1967) also suggested that interpersonal communication and information dissemination can influence in consumer choice. 2.2.3 Emotional Value Emotional value is perceived from an alternatives capacity to arouse feelings or affective states. An alternatives get the emotional value when specific feelings continue those feelings. The feeling which associated with the alternative can be measured in profile of emotional value. Normally, goods and service are correlated with emotional responses and aesthetic alternatives. More tangible products have emotional value for example, some foods can rise the feeling of comfort through their correlated with childhood experiences. According to Dichter (1947) , carried out in motivation research that consumer choice may be lead by noncognitive and unconscious motives. A good and interesting of advertising and decoration of environment in marketing and promotion can enhance the emotional responses to marketed products (Martineau, 1958; Zajonc, 1968; Kotler, 1974; Holbrook, 1983; Park and Young, 1986). 2.2.4 Epistemic Value Epistemic value is an alternatives to enhance the curiosity, provide novelty, and satisfy a desire for knowledge. Epistemic value can get from questionnaire items referring to curiosity, novelty, and knowledge. Epistemic value usually provide the overall new experiences and the alternative can be chosen because consumer is already bored or satisfied with their current products or brand for example they want to try new type of coffee brand and they curious in visiting a new restaurant or they have desire to learn in experiencing another culture. According to (Katz and Lazarsfeld, 1955; Howard and Sheth, 1969; Hansen, 1972; Hirschman, 1980), concept of epistemic value has been influenced by theory of exploratory, novelty seeking, and variety of motives that suggested activating the product search, trial, and switching the behaviors. 2.2.5 Conditional Value Conditional value is a result by an alternative of the specific situation facing the choice maker. Conditional value presence of antecedent physical or social contingencies that can enhance its functional or social value. The choice contingencies are measuring profile of conditional value. The alternatives usually depend on the situation for example, some products of food only have when seasonal value or some of food only have once in a lifetime events. Many products of food have not more obvious conditional association. Hull (1963) and Howard (1969) recognized the importance of learning will take place a result of experience with a given situation. 2.3 Restaurant Attributes Customers have their own reason to want to return to any restaurant. They are constantly seeking quality, value and desirable environment away from the pressures of daily life. Offering good food and good service is not enough to attract and retain customers. To gain a competitive advantage, restaurants need to offer good value in a favorable ambience. According to Autys study (1992), there are ten factors influencing restaurant selection decision which are food type, food quality, and value for money, image and atmosphere, location, speed of service, recommend, new experience, operating hour and facilities for children. However, image and atmosphere were found to be the final choice between restaurants which were similar, and food quality and food type were the most important factor of restaurant selection. 2.3.1 Food Quality Quality of food which contain the fresh ingredients has already been rated as the most important reason why customers return to the restaurant (Brumback, 1998). Technology plays an important function to maintain the quality of food. It means computer chips in refrigerators or fryers or ice-makers need to always maintain the temperature to avoid from any waste of foods. 2.3.2 Price The price is to paid for a service is known as the level of quality to be demanded (Davis and Vollman,1990). Therefore, dining out becomes an integral part of consumers lifestyle, experienced consumers due to their expectations with regard to quality, while seeking a better value for their budget (Cullen,1994). 2.3.3 Environment Ambience may give restaurants competitive edge and restaurants need to update their dÃ ©cor and concepts if they want to attract more customers and compete with others successfully. Belman said that: Today, the most important thing is design and concept. The owner of restaurant need to invest money to create a good of decoration. It can be a good enjoyable and a fun dinner for social able people. 2.3.4 Location Location plays the main important factor in consumer decision making. It is a critical location aspect of marketing strategy. As Hughes (1996) said that: Good location allow ready access, can attract large numbers of consumers and significantly alter consumer purchasing patterns. As restaurant with very similar food offerings proliferate, even slight differences in location decision represent long-term financial commitments and changing poor locations can be difficult and costly. In a study by Bitner (1992) also found that convenience location and low prices are the top-ranked determinants of patronage. 2.3.5 Service Quality Nowadays, customers have also been concerned about the quality of service. Service quality is viewed as an antecedent to satisfaction. Since the customers interaction with the service provider and the service-producing process have a significant impact on the customers perception of service quality and subsequently influence customers satisfaction, marketing concept, such as customer satisfaction should be incorporated into the managements operational decision making process. 2.4 Factor Affect Restaurant Attributes Consideration The importance of the restaurant attributes according to three main factors which are restaurant types, dining out occasion and occupation, age and income. 2.4.1 Restaurant Types According to Lewis (1981), importance of restaurant attributes varied according to the four types of restaurant, which are categorized as fine dining, family, theme and convenience. Fine dining restaurant are friendliness of waiting staff, quality of food and environment. While family restaurant has top four choice variables are location, cleanliness, cost of food and speed of service. The theme restaurants are ambience factors, prestige, quality of food and location. 2.4.2 Dining Out Occasion Restaurant chosen according to dining out occasion which are categorized as a celebration for instance birthday, a special occasion and business meal. The top three determinants variables for celebration occasion are quality of food, type of food and menu item variety. Whereas for special occasion are cleanliness, service and type of food. On the other hand, for business meal are quality of food, prestige and ambience factors (Kivela, 1997). 2.4.3 Occupation, Age and Income Kivela (1997) has suggested that the determinant choice variables also changes according to occupation, age, and income segments. Financial people make their final restaurant choice on the basis of cost of food because of limited budget, location due to convenience, speed of service and quality of food. 2.4 Consumer Behavior in Food Service Industry Consumers have potentially to deals with all ways people that may act in their role according to study about the consumer behavior ( Schiffman and Kanuk, 1991). In practice of consumer behavior there are more tends to focus upon behavior that related to searching, buying, used the products and also services. Normally, consumer will be assumed as groups and they will be identified through geo-demographic noticeable quality and they also will take as true to have common attitudes. Food service literature consist example of segmentation surveys for example demand for different types of restaurant to different socio-economic segments. It shows that different of demographic and income will give the effect less of demand in consuming of food compared with population density of metropolitan areas. In this study the purchase behavior is related to the act of consumers towards restaurant consumption lifestyle and according to Blackwell (1998), consumer behavior in food service industry always related with how people buy, when they buy, what they buy and why they buy. He also stated that consumer behavior in food service is a subcategory of marketing that combines all the elements from psychology, sociology, socio-psychology, anthropology and economics. However, Gordon (1980) was used the behavioral sciences specifically for social psychology and sociology to understand more what customers wants and needs. He mentioned that through consumers psychological backgrounds can investigate the consumers in order to establish the extent to which factors like attitudes, motives and personality traits affect buying behavior. Whereas, social can influence such as class, status and also family. These were contributed to the understanding of consumer decision making. Mattila et al. (2002) had mentioned that the purchasing of food is a complex phenomenon. This is because the food must be available when consumer wants it, always at an affordable price and quality of food is in acceptable level. All of these will arrange consumer to select the right kinds of restaurant in order to eat their food for overall well being as well as to meet nutritional requirement. Food service industry has characteristics in an apart of the service sector which is in financial and professional services. However, Campbell-Smith (1967), it is much related with food choice and quality but at the same time food service offer meal experience to which many factors. Some of the restaurants characteristic in finding the consumers are choice and quality of food and drink, the price or value, service, atmosphere, location and convenience. (Auty, 1992; Gregoire et al (1995). However, Pettijohn et al. (1997) found the three most important for consumer in selecting the restaurant are quality, cleanliness and value. Whereas, the atmosphere in the restaurant and also the variety of menu which offered in the restaurant were not relatively important. Many studies showed that quality of food was very importance and consumers just see the service as several factors that influenced in quality of restaurant offered. According to Kara et al. (1995), demographic of consumer will give the different expectations of the type of food served, location of restaurants and also the cost of the food they spent. Not only the attribute values concerned with consumer satisfaction, but the wide value also can concerned in consumer satisfaction for instance, the choice making in the individual at the time they purchase is very significant point that can affect in restaurant consumers satisfaction. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This research used the qualitative method which is individual interview. The information obtained from this research is beneficial to food service industry to understand what the consumers expect from them and can help food service industry to improve the satisfaction among consumers. In order to do so, methodology and procedure were designed to ensure high quality and standard of the study in obtaining reliable information. This study will include the location of the study, sampling procedure, data collection procedure, and research instrument and data analysis. 3.2 Location of the study This research need to compare the restaurant consumption lifestyle between student and working people, so the interview was conducted fully in Universiti Putra Malaysia. This place was used because there is a lot of Malay and Chinese students thus, reliable information can be obtained among the respondents. 3.3 Sampling Design The sampling method used in this study wwas convenience sampling. This sampling method is selected because it is convenience and relatively quick. The respondent will easy to get to do the interviewing. In this study, a total of respondents are 30. 3.4 Research Instrument In this study, the interview question was unstructured question and the answer will depends on the respondents. However, in this research there is still have question for the respondents. Respondents were asking about: Where and what kind of place or restaurant they eat most often. What type of food they eat often and why they choose that type. Respondents need to describe the food due to taste, colour and appearance. In what way the food is convenience for them. What the purpose or motivation factor they eating out? If they have special dish to eat, when they will go out, what they want to eat and why they want eat it. Did they will go only restaurant that sell of the food for example they will go Italian Restaurant or Pizza Hut if they want to eat Italy food. In one week, how many times they eating at the restaurant? What the criteria they will choose if they eating at the restaurant? Why? Price Quality Convenience Health 3.5 Data Analysis This research was analyzed through interview content. The data from interview need to transcribe carefully and then starting to analyze each of the respondent interview. The content analysis consists of reading and re-reading the transcripts looking for similarities and differences in order to find objective and to develop categories. DSLR or a Digital Camera? DSLR or a Digital Camera? The first mass use camera became available at the turn of the 20th century and can be traced back to the year 1900 and during the 20th century the pace of technology development in cameras and photography continued at an accelerated pace much like many other key technology developments, just like how a digital camera evolved into a DSLR. My question now is if you are willing to buy a camera, should you buy a DSLR or a Digital Camera? This is a question that you need to answer for yourself and this is why I am writing this essay, for you to decide. Let us now start with their picture quality, followed by their over-all performance, and finally their major differences. In DSLRs, one cannot always preview how a picture will be exposed; instead, metering and experience must be relied upon, unlike in digital cameras where in megapixel rating is the main thing to consider when determining a cameras quality. Digital cameras generally have small image sensors which mean that the quality that they produce is generally lower. This is slowly changing in some digital cameras but in comparison to DSLRs they still have a long way to go. Its worth saying however that if youre not planning on using your images for major enlargements or in professional applications that the quality of digital cameras can be more than enough for the average user, although based on the survey conducted a lot of people would rather prefer a DSLR than a digital camera regardless of their skills in photography. When it comes to over-all performance, a DSLR camera has a feature set that well suits both amateurs and more experienced photographers alike. Fast performance, incredibly detailed images, and a solid live view implementation making DSLRs an excellent choice for more experienced photographers. While DSLR cameras are perfect for professional photographers digital cameras on the other hand offers great ease of use for beginners for it packs long zooms, is compact and has a stylish body, and it is an excellent all around camera thats idea for travel and general purpose photography. Digital cameras are remarkably easy to use and produce great results when set to intelligent auto mode, but even though digital cameras seem to be easier, a majority of the people still prefers a DSLR. One of the major differences between a DSLR and a digital camera is what prevents people from buying a DSLR, its price. Even though DSLR prices have come down each and every year, they are still significantly more expensive than digital cameras considering that you might want to upgrade your lens or you may wish to add more lenses later and that this adds to the cost of a DSLR, but 19 out of 30 people still think that the DSLR is more cost efficient. Zoom is also one major difference, since all DSLR lenses can be removed from the camera body, the zoom mechanism are entirely manual. To change the view you have to twist a ring on the lens. This manual zoom actually results in a faster zoom. You dont have to wait for the motors to move the lens and out unlike that of the digital camera, you can just twist the zoom ring as fast or as slow as you like. You can clearly see the difference between a DSLR and a digital camera when it comes to size and weight because DSLRs are heavy and sizab le when you add a lens or two to your bag kit, you can end up with quite the load! Unlike in a digital camera, you are simply able to slip the camera in a pocket to the point of not even knowing youve got them with you! The strength of the conducted survey is that since a majority of the few people who answered the survey chose the DSLR as their best choice, it is possible that majority of the people will also choose DSLR as their choice since DSLRs are very popular to beginners and pros alike. The weakness of the survey on the other hand is that only a few people were able to answer it so we cannot fully investigate what the people really think about DSLRs and digital cameras. We cannot say that the DSLR is the best choice just because 30 people said so. Although the obvious choice for most is the DSLR but it is still best to ask individually rather than assuming that the DSLR is the best choice. If you want a portable camera that takes good enough pictures that youll mainly use for small prints, for uploading pictures on facebook, and one that youll mainly shoot in auto mode, Ill probably recommend a digital camera, but if youre after the image quality and youre desire is to use the manual settings, then I highly recommend a DSLR. I also recommend people to buy a digital camera first rather than jumping into a DSLR without even knowing the basic of taking pictures.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Gun Control Does Not Control Criminals Ã "A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed" (Bill of Rights, Article II). This seemingly simple phrase is probably the source of more debate and argument than any other single sentence in American history. The argument is not black and white, rather, it encompasses many shades of gray. At the one end of the spectrum you have the National Rifle Association (NRA) which currently views any type of gun control as an infraction against the Second Amendment of the Constitution ("What is the NRA" 1). At the other end of the spectrum you have groups like the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence (CSGV) and Handgun Control, Inc. seek to make most firearms accessible only to law enforcement and the military("CSGV" 1). In the middle there are organizations such as the American Firearms Association, who seek compromise regarding our rights (Lissabet, "Return" 2). Some organizations that one would expect to participate in this debate are noticeably quiet. One such group is the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). In "The ACLU on Gun Control", the national ACLU policy is neu trality (1). All factions in this debate have some merit, some more than others. All use a mixture of facts, figures, and emotions to express their views. I will be presenting some of their history, their views, and how they make their cases. The NRA is perhaps the most well known of the participants. They were formed after the Civil War, in 1871, as an organization dedicated to the rifle marksmanship of the state Militias. This was due to Union Army's lack of marksmanship. Following World War II, many returning veterans joi... ... Works Cited Cloud, David. "Anti-Gun Study Highlights Failure of Gun Control." Fundamental Baptist News Service 3 May 1996: 1 Lissabet, Ernest. "Anti-Federalism and the Second Amendment."Ã American Firearms Association WWW Site: http://www.firearms.org/afa/federal.html. Lissabet, Ernest. "The Return of the Old Guard."Ã American Firearms Association WWW Site: http://www.firearms.org/afa/return.html. "The ACLU on Gun Control." ACLU WWW Site: http://www.aclu.org/library/aaguns.html. "The Facts of Gun Violence_"Ã Coalition to Stop Gun Violence WWW Site: http://www.gunfree.inter.net/csgv/basicnfo.html. "What is the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence?" Coalition to Stop Gun Violence WWWSite: http://www.gunfree.inter.net/csgv/csgvsumm.html. "What is the NRA and how does it work?"Ã National Rifle Association WWW Site:http://www.nra.org/nra-precis.html.
Friday, July 19, 2019
English Speech Against Physical Punishment of Children Good Morning/Afternoon ladies, gentlemen and chairperson. I am also arguing against the motion that states, this house believes that physical punishment including smacking young children is wrong. I am a firm believer that a short, sharp smack can keep children under control. This doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean they should be beaten up or even marked, but strict and fair punishment will benefit a child in the long run. Please picture this scene: a young child of around 3 years is having a temper tantrum in the middle of a busy high street because his mum wonÃ¢â¬â¢t buy him a toy car. He tries to run away from his mother, screaming and shouting at the same time. To stop the noise the mother gives in a buys the toy car. Now ask yourself who is in charge here, the mother or the child? After all, the child gets his own way and now knows exactly what to do next time he wants something. In these circumstances, parents may have to resort to a smack to one, get the child listening and doing what they are told, two, stop the noise and temper tantrum and finally, for the childÃ¢â¬â¢s benefit and own safety. Also, what or who is going to stop an out of control child running out into the middle of a busy road? A quick smack is a lot less pain full then getting knocked down by a car or even a bus! There are many in favour of the government leaving the law as it stands that parents have the right to smack their children. Groups such as Family and Youth Concern feel politicians should let parents get on with bringing up their children as they see fit, and warn that any change in the law would risk turning thousands of parents into criminals. They also feel a ban on smacking would be impossible to enforce. The opposition may argue that there are other forms of punishment which are just as effective as smacking. For example, ignoring the
Military Technology Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Technology in the military has greatly increased strength and eased the ranking among world powers and effected the development of new military weapons. The term Ã¢â¬Å"Survival of the fittestÃ¢â¬ means that the strong will succeed but the meek will not, this is the case with military technology. The U.S. has the best technology in the world, therefore we are the highest military power. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Technology is a very important part of warfare. Technology is driven by the military. The army's race during the cold war, spawned some of the greatest technical achievements in human history. Space travel for example is a result of the X-plane project. The Internet was produced by the military as well. If we stop investing in military technology, we risk our safety. If other nations had more advance technology than we do, they would have more power than we do. If that was to happen, we face the threat of that nation taking over us. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Military technology may be divided into five categories. Offensive arms harm the enemy, while defensive weapons ward off offensive attacks. Transportation technology moves soldiers and weaponry; communications coordinate the movements of armed forces; and sensors detect forces and guide weaponry. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many types of technological developments in the military happening at all times. They range from new aircraft to sophisticated guidance systems. Teams of specialists work for years to develop some of our simplest equipment. These peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday lives are devoted to the safety and protection of the citizens of the U.S. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Aircraft are one of the biggest areas of advancement in the past. Military aircraft have become more sophisticated in variety, effectiveness, and maneuverability techniques in recent years. After it was found that aircraft could be very useful in war, they started to become a necessity of war. After World War 2, technological advances in aircraft began. The advances include stealth, targeting, maneuverability, etc. With stealth technology, many new and extremely effective aircraft have been developed for air warfare. One of the very first stealth aircrafts was developed for Operation Dessert Storm. This stealth fighter jet was the F-117A. The U.S. sent out 43 of these jets, and all of them returned and with not as much as a scratch on them. During Dessert Storm, the F-117A pr... ...litary uses. Military technology has been effecting the rules of war for years and it will for years to come. In medieval times, there were many advances that today we would not think of as technology but they are. Chain mail armor was invented to prevent injuries from sword fighting, catapults were used to throw objects over castle walls and break down doors. The American Revolution had an impact on technology, the first guns were just being made, without this technology we would be nowhere today. In WWI machine guns were invented by the Germans, and then more finely tuned for WWII. Since WWII, there have been so many developments that they canÃ¢â¬â¢t even be counted. The future has a good outlook for new technology in the military. Many possibilities include the unmanned war, where all the fighting will be done by robots and computers. Other possibilities include, space travel, new fuels, vehicles, and more. Military technology has greatly improved our world and has put ahead the strongest nations. Many other uses come from these developments far from what they were originally designed for. Technology has been the largest influence on the world since the beginning of time. Military Technology Essays -- Technological Research Persuasive Essays Military Technology Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Technology in the military has greatly increased strength and eased the ranking among world powers and effected the development of new military weapons. The term Ã¢â¬Å"Survival of the fittestÃ¢â¬ means that the strong will succeed but the meek will not, this is the case with military technology. The U.S. has the best technology in the world, therefore we are the highest military power. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Technology is a very important part of warfare. Technology is driven by the military. The army's race during the cold war, spawned some of the greatest technical achievements in human history. Space travel for example is a result of the X-plane project. The Internet was produced by the military as well. If we stop investing in military technology, we risk our safety. If other nations had more advance technology than we do, they would have more power than we do. If that was to happen, we face the threat of that nation taking over us. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Military technology may be divided into five categories. Offensive arms harm the enemy, while defensive weapons ward off offensive attacks. Transportation technology moves soldiers and weaponry; communications coordinate the movements of armed forces; and sensors detect forces and guide weaponry. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many types of technological developments in the military happening at all times. They range from new aircraft to sophisticated guidance systems. Teams of specialists work for years to develop some of our simplest equipment. These peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday lives are devoted to the safety and protection of the citizens of the U.S. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Aircraft are one of the biggest areas of advancement in the past. Military aircraft have become more sophisticated in variety, effectiveness, and maneuverability techniques in recent years. After it was found that aircraft could be very useful in war, they started to become a necessity of war. After World War 2, technological advances in aircraft began. The advances include stealth, targeting, maneuverability, etc. With stealth technology, many new and extremely effective aircraft have been developed for air warfare. One of the very first stealth aircrafts was developed for Operation Dessert Storm. This stealth fighter jet was the F-117A. The U.S. sent out 43 of these jets, and all of them returned and with not as much as a scratch on them. During Dessert Storm, the F-117A pr... ...litary uses. Military technology has been effecting the rules of war for years and it will for years to come. In medieval times, there were many advances that today we would not think of as technology but they are. Chain mail armor was invented to prevent injuries from sword fighting, catapults were used to throw objects over castle walls and break down doors. The American Revolution had an impact on technology, the first guns were just being made, without this technology we would be nowhere today. In WWI machine guns were invented by the Germans, and then more finely tuned for WWII. Since WWII, there have been so many developments that they canÃ¢â¬â¢t even be counted. The future has a good outlook for new technology in the military. Many possibilities include the unmanned war, where all the fighting will be done by robots and computers. Other possibilities include, space travel, new fuels, vehicles, and more. Military technology has greatly improved our world and has put ahead the strongest nations. Many other uses come from these developments far from what they were originally designed for. Technology has been the largest influence on the world since the beginning of time.