Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Use of “n” Word in Huck Finn

Others debate that it makes race uncomfortable and prevents them from reading this expectant piece of American literature. The mess who believe that the original text should be edited, focus their discontent on the racial t unitary of the language. The fact that the racial spite makes many people shade uncomfortable, is one of the main reasons they tone that way. In the obligate by Philip Rails, the scholar Alan Cribber enunciates, Its a shame that one word should be a barrier between a extraordinary reading experience and a lot of lecturers(Rails 1).That Is exactly what people feel the word Niger is In Huckleberry Finn. It acts as a barrier for people who bring forth It uncomfortable to read, and prevents them from comprehending the writing. In the article Houck Finn goes clean In peeled upshot by Analyzer, an English teacher expresses why she doesnt ring Its k to enforce the word. When youre using obnubilates racial slurs, gender slurs, homosexuality slurs I think y oure victimizing people (Layer 3). It is very aline that blacks in America could get offended if you say the word in a classroom or they read it in the novel.It probably reminds them of the hard eras their ancestors went through or puts them into stereotype that they dont think they belong in. It is very easy for people to become uncomfortable with an tease like the word in Houck Finn. The English teacher in Layers article in like manner says, remember when I first read it in 1986 and I was thinking, Oh, wow. The racial slur Is problematic (Layer 2). Like many people, she feels as though buckle down would be to a greater extent acceptable. It would make people feel more at ease and able to actually read the book without a distracting word.Teachers definitely do not unavoidableness their students to be Immature close the n-word, especially if there ar blacks in the classroom. If the students wouldnt be mature roughly it, it would be nice to have another choice. Readers, stud ents and teachers also should have a choice in what they want to read. If they have the book with in it and dont want it, they should be able to choose what they want. As long as they are comfortable and do not distract or offend the reader than the berth of the book is basen. While the reasons for replacing the slur are reasonable, people are dummy up tryingly against illegaliseing Houck Finn.They feel as though removing the insult would compensate what had happened in the past. The way we treated the slaves was extremely harsh and this Is a way America can remember as well as refrain from making a mistake Like that In the future. virtually other reason readers dont want to censor the novel Is the fact that they are censoring a major novel. In the article Why a new edition of Houck Finn Is By Alexandra Petri, Petri discusses her displeasure with the censorship of the novel. She says, This is like turning expiration of a Salesman into room Heart of Darkness or all the sha bbiness (Petri).Even Mark Twain himself said about the difference between slave and Niger is the difference between the lightning bug and the lightning (Controversy as new edition ). If they censor American literature, what will be next? Many argue that they dont spang where the removing of all things bad will stop. Great deals of readers think that the racial slur is crucial to how the readers interpret the whole story. In the article, Houck Finn goes clean An English prof explains how important it is to be shaken and feel uncomfortable with the word Niger (Layer).It depicts the time period in which it happened accurately, and though it wasnt, and still isnt, something that is acceptable, it still brings out the point of the novel. Mark Twain put the word in there for a purpose, not Just to do it. He uses it to bring out some of the irony. Petri says in her article that regardless of the fact that slavery was in full(a) throttle, Mark Twain was still able to use satire to show h ow wrong it was (Petri). Granted, the usage of the word Niger was normal in that time period, precisely now the satire Twain uses seems al the more relevant.His satire is still shown to this very day. Also, the characters would not have said slave, it is more existent if Houck was to say Niger because, to him, thats what a slave was. It was completely normal, whether we think it was or not. solely in all, the choice is up to the readers. If the reader feels that the n word is overly offensive to read, the option to read a different word should be open to them. We cant distract people from the meaning of the story if they get dissatisfied and embarrassed.No one has the right to deny someone fondness when reading a book. The novel is partially about striving for freedom. While freedom comes with a price, shouldnt everyone have the freedom to choose which way they want to read something? However, it is also important to know that the word was there in the first place. It is true th at the story could lose its meaning by taking out what makes the satire so uncomfortable. The word is an important part of the story, but if people look it than why are they not allowed to enjoy the piece that people honor so much?

Pygmalion and Pretty Woman Essay

The relationship amid the texts you have studied and their respective heathenish context is significant because it provides insight into the dash value have been kept up(p) and changed. Discuss with reference to the text from the past and its appropriation.The intended auditory modality of both(prenominal) Pygmalion, by George Bernard Shaw and moderately Woman, directed by Garry Marshall was the bunch of association at the cadence of composition. This is seen through the choice of the form of each(prenominal)(prenominal) text, Pygmalion is a figure out because in the primordial twentieth centaury this was the popular way of spreading ideas and Pretty Woman is a Hollywood film, a contemporary form of mass media today. Because both texts were aimed at the majority of society they each must represent the catch up withs of their cultural context to be popular, which both texts prove to be. As both texts study the cultural views of the context they were represent in, a comparison of the two provides a significant insight into the way item values have been maintained and changed everywhere time.One of the main values explored in both texts is what each society believes to be the completed woman. By comparing the way these women in both texts are presented, we are habituated an insight into the changing status of women over time.In English society in the early 1900s women were seen as inferior to men and were oft stereotyped in the sense of the clothes they wore, how they spoke and how they presented themselves, rather than their personality. Womens inferiority is seen in Higgins and Elizas un refer relationship, Higgins is clearly presented as the cut through and owner of Eliza as he buys her from her father and treats her as a rifle doll. Eliza is almost objectified by Higgins, representing the sexism present in the 1900s. She is seen as the perfect woman by society only when she has been transformed to a dignified, advantageously spoken, beautiful lady of high society. This is seen through the differing reactions to Eliza by the Eynsford Hill family when she is a flower girl, compared to when she is a duchess .The position of women in society has changed a enormous deal over the last centaury and the contemporary post-feminist society is believed to provide and equal playing field for all. Women and men are seen as equals well-disposedly as well as by law and in the workforce. This is seen in the act as Vivian as the heroine in the film who, although she is still beautiful, is individual, independent and has a certain instinctive intelligence, she is seen as ideal for these personal qualities.A nonher view explored in both texts is the complicated remains of hierarchal social classes and bridging the open up or breaking the barrier between these classes.Late nineteenth early twentieth centaury English society had a rigid class system with the idea of upper, middle and lower classes that were ground upon b irthright. At the time Pygmalion was composed however, the system had begun to change as the growing middle class was runner to rise up through the social hierarchy due to wealthiness. This is depicted in the play when Mr. Doolittle becomes rich and rises the ladder into middle class faith. Shaw is deeply satirical of these social classes as is seen in how Eliza can pricey rise herself to upper class and her statement to Higgins at the end of the play of I had only to lift my finger to be as good as you clearly makes his view clear that the social barriers are superficial.Pretty Woman was written in the late 1980s, a decade cognise as the greed is good decade were social class was based solely upon wealth, apart from in the global community were both ethnicity and wealth both play a role. Social hierarchy is more negotiable as any peerless can rise to what is seen as higher(prenominal) society through the gaining of money, not through the class they were born into. prejudic e between the classes is seen when the shop assistants refuse to serve Vivian on Rodeo drive. However as the movie is aimed at the all day average American one typically of the middle class, mistreatment of wealth or greed is seen as a bad thing. Seen in the portrayal of Edwards work partner Stukie who because of his attempts to increase the surface of his company and his unfaithfulness to his wife is seen as superficial and by Edwardss sad comment to Vivian we both screw people for money. The audience instead sympathises with Vivian, who all though is of low class is still seen as the favoured character because of her personality. This demonstrates the modern disregard for social class, which is a value that has changed over the past one hundred years.The major observation that can be made of both texts and which demonstrates changing values over time is in the decision of each story. Shaw was determined to give Pygmalion an anti-romantic ending, meaning the play did not con clude as a romantic comedy should, with the main womanly and male characters falling in do it. His reasoning is that Eliza has achieved independence and no continuing wishes to be seen as Higgins belonging, as well as that his relation to her is also godlike to be altogether agreeable. This reflects not only Shaws strongly feministic views but the need for more equal gender relationships at the time and the publics preferred choice of a more believable close over a romantic one. Popular thinking at the time believed that people married within their class and Higginss dismissal of love as a life of the gutter demolishes any dream-like romantic world.The conclusion of Pretty Woman was specifically designed to suit the mass grocery store romantic comedy genre and to appeal to todays womanise obsessed society. The conclusion of Vivian and Edward falling in love and meeting symbolically half way in the fire escape is a typically Hollywood ending and highly unrealistic. To make the movie popular with a wide audience Marshall has created a fairytale ending when Vivian is rescue by her prince as she has always dreamed of. This constitutes the happy ending of a typical romantic comedy and reflects how todays media has moulded society into having exalted romantic perceptions.Both texts were popular culture of their time and thus reflect the common ideals and values of the context in which they were created. By studying the relationships between each text and their cultural context we can compare both texts to reveal the way certain views, in this case romanticism, the role of women and social classes, have changed over time.

Monday, January 14, 2019

Desiree’s Baby and Battle Royal: Character Comparison Essay

Reasons the primary(prenominal) characters in Desirees baby and affair lofty choose divergent paths to solve their problems Racism has deterred many Africans from living happily, for from the two given stories we sawing machine that unity took her own life for that and the other had to suffer all the inhuman intervention and inequality of the whites in order to continue his academic life. In the stories, our main(prenominal) characters had both chosen divergent paths, solutions to their problem. The reasons that lead to this dissimilarity were that both of them were different people with different stands in society and also their situations were non a handle.As a woman, Desirees joy in life lied in her happy family yet she was deserted by her own husband. Armands treatment towards Desiree made her became miserable and so when she left with the child, she had nothing to live for. Armand and Desiree were actually much in love at the beginning of the story and Desiree could not cope without him. Desiree did not understand what she had done but she felt guilty. Armand view that she had betrayed him that she was an unfaithful wife. The change in Armands attitude towards his wife affect Desiree and due to this she killed herself and her child.On the other hand, our spring chicken black narrator was a slave. He was and constantly has been an obedient slave who believed if he worked hard large the white community would accept him. Thus, through all the abuse and aft(prenominal) being treated as an entertainment, he still held on to his spoken language the one thing he was firmed of. And in the end, though he was very(prenominal) confound if his grandfathers words were true he had to go continue his academic life first, which left him in a crossroad.Furthermore, Desiree was pick out by a well-respected family and also she married Armand who was also from a rich family, which put a lot of pressure on her to be a perfect woman. So when her husband f alsely accused her of being black, she was confused since it went against everything she had been in her whole life good, kind, and pure. She was shocked to see happiness taken away from her so easily and also to see that she had became a discomposure to her husbands and her own family. That also is why she chose death as her solution. In contrast to Desiree the narrators family in Battle Royal were all slaves. They were not ashamed of it.They believed in Equal but separate. , they always taught their kids to be good and their good deed will be rewarded. This stain was proven when white people gave the narrator a scholarship. At that picture he had caught glimpses of the cruelty of the white society but still he was very grateful for that scholarship hence, it blindfolded him from the real truth. Moreover, Desiree chose death for herself because she theory she had nothing left to live for in this world, she was treated like an outcast. Of escape we can argue that she had to li ve for her baby, but in the end she did what she did to rescue both of them.She was scared and she knew for sure that in this society no one would accept her baby. She did not want her child to go through what she had so ending both of their lives was the easiest choice. However, our narrator in Battle Royal, not like Desiree, he had a choice. He could go to college be an obedient African-American like he was and everything would stay perfectly fine. He could have a life and he was not going to throw that rare chance away which is why his choice of path was not remotely as same as Desirees in the other short story. In conclusion, our characters had unraveled their problems through different ways.Desiree chose to commit suicide and our narrator in Battle Royal continued with his life though he was unsure what he should do. They chose differently because they were different person, they came from different society class at that time, and their problems were not the same. But in the end, Desiree and the African-American narrator were both victims of racism which were visualized differently in both of our short stories but still were look in Desirees case what tragic did racism brought and in our young narrators case that how racism can be cover with the sentence Equal but separate.

Friday, January 11, 2019

Breach of Employment Contract Essay

The circumstance involves a introduce that Baril, the appellant, was dismissed by Aiken Regional medical Centers, the hospital where she antecedently casted, and much(prenominal) dismissal puddles a shock of the custom resolve mingled with Baril and the infirmary. The spend a penny the parties were ref luxateing to was the Associate enchiridion she certain from the hospital, which contained the force polices of the infirmary that governed her consumption.Baril was ended for devising a c exclusively through the infirmarys toll-free number, as a gist of which he was deemed to arrest comprise a invasion of the infirmarys overlooks and policies, which de practise her straightaway verge. Baril argues that the hospital itself br individu solelyyed the utilization take away by unjustly terminating her commerce. The courtyard of pulls of sulfur Carolina began its discussion by stating that the world-wide rule on interlocking twitchs is that drives of d ate be at- leave take aways.This means that the stupefy is terminable at the pleasure of each mentioner, at whatever condemnation, regardless of the founding or non-embodyence of a justifiable ground for the terminal figure. However, the earth of an employee vade mecum is recognized as an exemption to the general rule. Such a handbook may nominate an employment beseech, depending on the hurt utter therein. Where the handbook contains ambiguous cla occasions such as dis arrogateers, the cut of whether it could constitute an employment consume has to be obdurate by a jury, and non by analysis astuteness.The mash noned that sequence the handbook explicitly states that it does not change the temper of the employment flummox as an at-will postulate, it does reserve strict parts to be followed in disciplinal cases such as the one where Baril is concerned. Thus, the infirmarys procedures and practices give rise to to a greater extent than one comely inf erence concerning the insertion of an employment disregard. Concomitantly, we find the footrace court vagabonded in assigning thick fancy on the issue of whether hospitals policies tack in its employee handbook, amendments, and actual practices created an employment fuck off amongst Baril and hospital.The court also determined that the employment abridge established by the infirmarys practices and procedures waits that there be an existing just work for issue. The meter for find justness in the termination of Barils employment rests on the existence of a tenable approximate combine effect that satisfactory ca pulmonary tuberculosis existed for termination. sl avouchess the arguments of both Baril and the hospital, the court cerebrate that commonsense minds could differ as to the whether there was good or bad organized religion in the infirmarys termination of Barils employment.Therefore, the case could not substantiate been colonised using the rules on analysis judgment. tie Case http//www. sccourts. org/opinions/HTMLfiles/COA/3561. htm THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA In The judgeship of Appeals Marolyn L. Baril, Appellant, v. Aiken Regional medical Centers, Respondent. Appeal From Aiken County Rodney A. Peeples, set dally Judge panorama No. 3561 Heard October 8, 2002 Filed October 28, 2002 REVERSED and REMANDED Herbert W. Louthian, sr. , and Deborah R. J. Shupe, both of Columbia, for Appellant. Richard J.Morgan and Reginald W. Belcher, both of Columbia, for Respondent. ANDERSON, J. Marolyn L. Baril appeals the Circuit apostrophizes order granting summary judgment to Aiken Regional Medical Centers ( hospital) on Barils accomplish for breach of employment contract. We turn and remand. FACTS/PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND Baril joined infirmarys nursing staff in 1986. She earned a masters leg in nursing giving medication from the University of southwestern Carolina in 1990. The following year, Baril was named film packor of hos pitals exigency department.Baril re sign(a) from that post for in the flesh(predicate) reasons in 1992, scarcely move as a staff absorb in the emergency department. Holly Martinez de Andino eventually succeeded Baril as director of hospitals emergency department. John Arnold 1 and Martinez de Andino indirectly supervised Baril. In early 1993, Baril began teaching nursing classes on a part-time fundament at the University of conspiracy Carolinas Aiken campus (USC-Aiken). She joined the qualification on a full-time basis later that year. Baril received an Associate Handbook from Hospital in May of 1997.She signed an acknowledgment variant provided by Hospital, indicating she would familiarise herself with the handbook and that she belowstood the handbook constituted the personnel policies of Hospital and that she was governed by them. The handbook and acknowledgment form contained disclaimer words Please use up Important participation Information The training conta ined in this booklet is designed to serve save as a file name extension to Aiken Regional Medical Centers policies and procedures. Aiken Regional Medical Centers reserves the right to amend this die hard as necessary at both time, with or without previous notice.Current hospital policies and procedures will apply in all cases. Please remember that this booklet does not constitute a contract between you and Aiken Regional Medical Centers. Employment at Aiken Regional Medical Centers is on a voluntary basis and either you or the Facility may annihilate this employment race at whatsoever time with or without reason or prior notice. No skinow of Aiken Regional Medical Centers has the right to make verbal promises or commitments which may create a contract and thereby variegate the employment at will relationship. (Emphasis added).Additionally, the handbooks Recruiting and Hiring sub segmentation included similar language In no event shall a hiring of an beau be considered as creating a contractual relationship between the associate and the Facility and, unless an new(prenominal)wise(prenominal) than provided in writing, such relationship shall be defined as employment at will, where either political company may disband the relationship. (Emphasis added). However, the acknowledgment form states that the information in the handbook is subject to change/ modification and whatever(prenominal) change will be proclaimd through the usual channels. The handbook combine a detailed, advancing corrective procedure. dickens categories of offenses were specifi describey identified. The categories were bifurcated (1) exercises sexual moralitying spry termination and (2) actions warranting termination for continuous violations. In July of 1998, Martinez de Andino develop Baril for averly slamming a door in Arnolds face and dissenting with Hospitals management regarding a management issue. 2 Baril was outset suspended and later given a lowest creat e verbally warning. Yet, the handbooks procedure mandated use of a final scripted warning only aft(prenominal)ward two previous warnings.Baril had not antecedently been warned or matterd. Baril chartered Hospital to change her work status from full-time to part-time in November 1998. She continued to teach full-time at USC-Aiken. Baril initiated a grievance pursuant to Hospital insurance policy. Hospitals chief executive director officer, Richard H. Satcher, investigated Barils complaint and found able cause to purge the disciplinal action from Barils employment file. As a condition to purging her employment file, Satcher involve Baril and Martinez de Andino to meet with Hospitals director of human resources, Richard Lowe, and director of nursing, Mary Ann Angle.The function of the skirmish was to clarify understandings and expectations regarding Baril and Martinez de Andinos working relationship. In January of 1999, Baril met with Martinez de Andino, Lowe, and Angle to discuss problems between Baril and Martinez de Andino. During the meeting, Baril explicit concern that Martinez de Andino had targeted Baril for termination which Martinez de Andino intend to accomplish using the corrective procedure.Lowe responded that Hospital had updated pertinent portions of its employee handbook to preserve the disciplinary procedure from being ab utilise to root out employees and to check out that it would only be used to positively impact its employees. Lowe delivered a feign of the new policy to Baril. Regarding its purpose, the policy declared To set standard operating procedures in order to ensure that all associates be fully aw are of the conduct pass judgment of them. This policy will also ensure fair and consistent treatment to associates if violations of these standards of conduct occur.This policy is based on the invention of increased severity in disciplining associates who repeatedly violate hospital rules while performing work for the hosp ital or while on hospital set forth. Written counselings are given for initial, minor infractions of rules if the infractions continue harsher discipline is enforced. However, situations which are so hard that they require immediate stern disciplinary action will not follow a progressive concept. Hospital reserves the right to deal disciplinary action as it deems countenance for the circumstances involved. (Emphasis added).The new policy provided en gayen is an instrument for changing un accommodateable procedure or port, and for providing motivation and encouragement for condition associates. The new policy described quatern general categories of disciplinary offenses, ranging in degree of seriousness from greatest (critical offenses) to least (minor offenses). The family unit of critical offenses included actions that established serious violations of rules or associate misconduct which justify immediate termination without regard to the associates length of service o r prior conduct. The new policy contained mingled examples of critical offenses. It specified in section 2. 2. 2 of HR116 that actions of dishonesty, fraud, theft (regardless of the amount), or unauthorized remotion of hospital property were examples of critical offenses. At the end of the meeting, Baril and Martinez de Andino signed a memorandum identifying expectations concerning Barils and Hospitals obligations to each other. The details of the document consisted of expectations related to performance and communications. On July 6, 1999, Baril suffered injuries when a cabinet fell on her while at work.She straight off sought treatment for injuries involving muscle strain, subperiosteal hematoma, and an impinged nerve. Baril filed an happening report and claim for Workers Compensation benefits at the time of the accident. Four days after her accident, on July 10, 1999, Baril traveled to Tacoma, Washington, for a vacation. When Baril arrived, she received a mobilize message indicating Hospital blackguarded her child in an effort to touch sensation Baril. In response, Baril called Hospital on its toll-free number and asked to speak to slightlyone in her department.After a brief communion with a coworker, Baril asked the coworker to transferee her call to her siss home in Aiken. Baril sure her sister that she had arrived in Washington safely, and asked why Hospital wanted to talk to her. Barils sister offered to call Hospital to ask why it had contacted her to show to reach Baril. However, Baril declined her sisters offer. According to predict confederacy records, the call lasted xxxii seconds. No essay exists in the record concerning the cost of the call or whether Hospital sustained either economic neediness as a result of the call.Baril returned from vacation on July 17, 1999. When she report to work the following day, Baril was told to meet with Arnold and Martinez de Andino. At the meeting, Baril learned that by using Hospitals toll -free number for personal use, she violated section 2. 2. 2 of Hospital Policy HR116, which cites dishonesty, fraud, theft (regardless of amount), unauthorized removal of hospital property, as critical offenses justifying immediate termination. Baril offered to pay for the telephone call, but Arnold refused to accept payment and informed her she was being change.Baril exited the premises a short time thereafter. Baril filed this cause of action averring (1) Hospital created a contract of employment between Baril and itself through its written employee handbook, its amendments to the handbook, and its conduct regarding the handbooks policies, in particular the needful language of the disciplinary procedure in HR116 and verbal assurances provided by Lowe during the January 1999 meeting (2) Hospital breached the contract between Baril and itself by wrongfully terminating her and (3) Hospital violated S.C. commandment Ann. 41-1-80 (Supp. 2001) by terminating Baril in retaliation fo r file a Workers Compensation claim. Baril sought $403,508 in actual restoration, plus costs and other just and proper relief. Hospital answered, principally denying Barils allegations and claiming it acted in good conviction when dealing with Barils discipline and termination.Hospital specifically asserted that Baril was an at-will employee throughout her employment with Hospital, and denied the existence of an employment contract. Hospital that claimed that, even if whatsoever employment contract existed, Hospital never breached it and that Barils authorise was not wrongful. Hospital cited Barils own conduct as the source of whatsoever and all of the employment actions that Hospital took against Baril. Additionally, Hospital well-kept that Baril failed to meet Hospitals established work standards, take Hospitals time and by chance money when making an impermissible telephone call, and violated at least one of Hospitals specific written Comp any(prenominal)(prenominal) po licies for which Hospitals action was a stated remedy of the violation. Finally, Hospital contended Baril failed to palliate any damages she might have sustained. Hospital moved for summary judgment, arguing no material issues of fact existed and Hospital was authorise to judgment as a matter of law.The Circuit Court conducted a comprehend on the motion and issued an order determination (1) Hospitals policies did not constitute an implied employment contract as a matter of law, even when viewed in the inflammation close affectionate to Baril (2) even if Hospitals policies conventional an implied employment contract, Hospitals actions did not breach the contract because it acted pursuant to the express terms of the allege contract and because Barils interpretation of the alleged contract was strained and unreasonable and would have led to absurd consequences (3) Hospital did not breach any alleged contract because on the date Hospital terminated Baril it had a reasonable, g ood assent belief that, pursuant to the language of HR 116, it had enough and just cause to terminate Barils employment (4) Baril failed to establish a retaliation claim because she based this cause of action barely upon her own self-serving, baseless opinions and the temporal proximity between the filing of her workers recompense claim and her termination of employment and (5) Baril failed to subside her damages because she did nothing to anticipate employment or mitigate damages in any way. The Circuit Court dismissed all of Barils claims with prejudice. STANDARD OF REVIEW When re conceive the grant of a summary judgment motion, the appellant court applies the same standard which governs the trial court under Rule 56(c), SCRCP summary judgment is proper when there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Fleming v. Rose, 350 S. C. 488, 567 S. E. 2d 857 (2002) Ferguson v. Charleston capital of Nebraska Mer cury, Inc. , 349 S. C. 558, 564 S. E. 2d 94 (2002).In determining whether any triable issue of fact exists, the show and all inferences which can reasonably be skeletal therefrom must be viewed in the clear(p) close to approbative to the immobile party. Faile v. South Carolina Dept of upstart Justice, 350 S. C. 315, 566 S. E. 2d 536 (2002) McNair v. Rainsford, 330 S. C. 332, 499 S. E. 2d 488 (Ct. App. 1998). If triable issues exist, those issues must go to the jury. Young v. South Carolina Dept of Corrections, 333 S. C. 714, 511 S. E. 2d 413 (Ct. App. 1999). Summary judgment is not tolerate where further inquiry into the facts of the case is suitable to clarify the application of the law. Vermeer Carolinas, Inc. v. Wood/ blare Chipper Corp. , 336 S. C. 53, 518 S. E. 2d 301 (Ct. App. 1999).All ambiguities, goals, and inferences arising from the consequence must be construed most potently against the moving party. Bayle v. South Carolina Dept of Transp. , 344 S. C. 115, 542 S. E. 2d 736 (Ct. App. 2001). Even when there is no difference of opinion as to evidentiary facts, but only as to the conclusions or inferences to be drawn from them, summary judgment should be denied. dormitory room v. Fedor, 349 S. C. 169, 561 S. E. 2d 654 (Ct. App. 2002). Moreover, summary judgment is a drastic remedy which should be guardedly invoked so no person will be improperly deprived of a trial of the disputed factual issues. Lanham v. gruesome Cross and Blue Shield, 349 S. C. 356, 563 S. E.2d 331 (2002) Trivelas v. South Carolina Dept of Transp. , 348 S. C. 125, 558 S. E. 2d 271 (Ct. App. 2001). ISSUES I. Did the Circuit Court err in granting summary judgment on the issue of whether Hospitals written policies and actual practices created an employment contract between the parties? II. Did the Circuit Court err in granting summary judgment on the issue of whether Hospitals actions in terminating Barils employment breached a contract between the parties? III. Did the Circuit Court err in granting summary judgment on the issue of whether Baril acted reasonably in attempting to mitigate her damages? LAW/ANALYSIS I. origination of Employment ContractBaril maintains the Circuit Court erred in granting summary judgment because, viewing the yard in the light most favorable to Baril as the nonmoving party, material issues of fact exist concerning whether Hospitals written policies and actual practices created an employment contract between Baril and Hospital. We agree. South Carolina recognizes the doctrine of employment at-will. Prescott v. Farmers Tel. Coop. , Inc. , 335 S. C. 330, 516 S. E. 2d 923 (1999). This doctrine provides that a contract for permanent employment is terminable at the pleasure of either party when unsupported by any consideration other than the employers duty to provide compensation in exchange for the employees duty to perform a service or obligation. Id. At-will employment is generally terminable by either party at any time, for any reason or no reason at all. Prescott, 335 S. C. at 334, 516 S. E. 2d at 925.However, an employer and employee may contractually alter the general rule of employment at-will, thereby restricting the freedom of either party to terminate the employment relationship without incur liability. See Small v. Springs Indus. , Inc. , 292 S. C. 481, 357 S. E. 2d 452 (1987). For example, an employee handbook may create a contract altering an at-will arrangement. Id. Because an employee handbook may create an employment contract, the head of whether a contract exists is for a jury when its existence is questioned and the say is either conflicting or admits of to a greater extent than one inference. Conner v. City of Forest Acres, 348 S. C. 454, 560 S. E. 2d 606 (2002) (stating summary judgment is inappropriate in most instances when handbook contains both a disclaimer and promises).The presence of promissory language and a disclaimer in the handbook make it ambiguous and subject to to a greater extent than one interpretation. 3 See Fleming v. Borden, 316 S. C. 452, 450 S. E. 2d 589 (1994) (stating that a handbook containing both a disclaimer and promissory language should be viewed as inherently ambiguous). Here, the handbook states that it does not survive to change the at-will nature of employment to a contractual relationship. However, the handbooks procedures concerning progressive discipline, discharge, and grievance are couched in mandatory terms, including assurances that the procedures will be followed. As to Lowes statements regarding the new disciplinary policy, Baril testifiedRichard Lowe told me, guaranteed me that the new disciplinary policy was put into effect for exactly that reason because I told Richard, I said, you know, I have been a manager, and you can use a disciplinary procedure to resolve to eliminate people or try to table service people grow and have positive behaviors and goals and grow. And Richard Lowe said that is what that polic y is for, is to help you, and that is what is going to be happening from this organize forward, and I felt that that was a guarantee, was a contract, a verbal contract that I would be treated equitably, that I would bethat I would not be targeted any further, that the grievance was over, and we were to go forward. And so I felt at that time that that was a contract that was do . . . . Thus, the court concluded that the procedures and practices established by the Hospital was much than sufficient for it to arrive at the conclusion that an employment contract was created between the parties. II.Hospitals Actions in Terminating Barils Employment Baril claims the Circuit Court erred in granting summary judgment because, viewing the conclusion in the light most favorable to Baril as the nonmoving party, material issues of fact exist regarding whether Hospitals actions in terminating her employment breached an employment contract between Hospital and Baril. We agree. When an employmen t contract only permits termination for cause, the appropriate test on the issue of breach focuses on whether the employer had a reasonable good faith belief that sufficient cause existed for termination. Conner v. City of Forest Acres, 348 S. C. 454, 464, 560 S. E.2d 606, 611 (2002) (emphasis added). The fact finder must not focus on whether the employee actually committed misconduct instead, the focus must be on whether the employer reasonably determined it had cause to terminate. Id. at 464-65, 560 S. E. 2d at 611. a. fair Good Faith In the January 1999 meeting, Baril expressed concern that Martinez de Andino disliked her and would use Hospitals disciplinary process to terminate her. Lowe responded that Hospital had updated pertinent portions of its employee handbook to prevent the disciplinary procedure from being mistreated to eliminate employees and to ensure that it would only be used to positively impact its employees.Nevertheless, reasonable minds could disagree as to whe ther Hospital proceeded to act in reasonable good faith by using the disciplinary policy to immediately terminate Baril for using the toll-free line to transfer one possibly business-related telephone call to Barils sister for thirty-two seconds. Additionally, our Supreme Court has held that summary judgment should not ordinarily be used to resolve the question of whether an employer acted under a reasonable good faith belief that sufficient cause existed for termination. Conner, 348 S. C. at 465, 560 S. E. 2d at 611-612. backwash the certify in the light most favorable to Baril, we find that reasonable minds could differ as to whether Hospital acted with good faith in terminating Baril. b. Sufficient Cause Hospital alleges it followed its disciplinary policies in terminating Baril.Hospital contends Barils invite that her call on Hospitals toll-free line be transferred to her sisters offstage residence constituted an act of dishonesty, fraud, theft (regardless of amount), unaut horized removal of hospital property. Thus, Hospital avers Baril demonstrated violation of a critical offense meriting immediate termination. However, Hospital never announced a policy against use of its toll-free telephone line by employees for personal or private business, although the written materials of Hospital purported to communicate policies and changes to Hospital employees. Furtherto a greater extent, Baril declared that other Hospital employees had engaged in similar behavior without Hospitals objection, thereby procreation the possibility that Hospital tacitly condoned the practice.Assuming, arguendo, that Hospital rightfully concluded such employee use of its toll-free telephone lines for private purposes constituted dishonesty, fraud, or theft sufficient to merit immediate termination under its policy, show exists that Barils telephone call to her sister originated in matters related to her employment at Hospital. Moreover, Hospital failed to produce any assure th at it suffered a loss related to the telephone call. In addition, Hospital rejected Barils good-faith efforts to compensate Hospital for any loss it may have sustained for the thirty-two second call, although Hospitals unquestioned practice was to permit employees to reimburse it for private long-distance telephone calls.The Circuit Court determined no evidence showed or even suggested that Baril ever reimbursed or assay to reimburse Hospital for any of these calls. A cursory reading of the record contradicts this finding. First, the develop any of these calls wrongly implies that Baril made more than one call, contrary to undisputed evidence that she only made one call at issue. Next, the record is replete with certification from Baril and Lowe that Baril immediately offered to reimburse Hospital for any expenses related to the telephone call. Hospital maintains Baril treat her authority by ordering a dependent to transfer the telephone call outside the Hospital. Yet, the re cord contains no evidence that Baril had any subordinates at the Hospital at the time she placed the call.In fact, the employee whom Baril asked to transfer the call was only considered a subordinate by the trial court because she had previously been one of Barils nursing students. Viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to Baril, we conclude her actions constituted a mere peccadillo at lather and that reasonable minds could differ concerning whether Hospital terminated Baril with just cause. III. Mitigation of Damages Baril claims the Circuit Court erred in granting summary judgment because, viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to Baril as the nonmoving party, material issues of fact exist concerning whether she made reasonable efforts to mitigate her damages. We agree.A party injured by the acts of another is necessary to do those things a person of popular prudence would do under the circumstances, but the law does not require him to hold himself unreason ably or incur unattackable expense to avoid damages. McClary v. Massey Ferguson, Inc. , 291 S. C. 506, 354 S. E. 2d 405 (Ct. App. 1987). Whether the party acted reasonably to mitigate damages is ordinarily a question for the jury. Id. Baril did not seek other employment throughout this litigation. However, she move to justify her behavior. First, she testified she did not want to pick up to potential employers that she had been fired. Second, she testified that there were no other hospitals with emergency rooms in or near Aiken, where she resided. Thus, she would have been forced to either commute or relocate in order to perform similar work.Baril did not want to relocate because she had a home and family in Aiken, where she taught college classes on a full-time basis. Baril speculated that a lengthy commute would put in with her teaching career. Considering the evidence in the light most favorable to Baril, reasonable minds could disagree over whether she made reasonable effort s to mitigate her damages. The trial court should have allowed this question to be resolved by a jury. CONCLUSION Accordingly, the trial courts finality is REVERSED and REMANDED. CONNOR and STILWELL, JJ. , concur. 1 John Arnolds specific job title is undecipherable in the record, which indicates he operated in a supervisory capacity similar to that of Martinez de Andino.2 shortly before Martinez de Andino initiated the July 1998 disciplinary action against Baril, a dispute arose between them concerning Martinez de Andinos decision to hire paramedics to perform nursing functions in the emergency room. Baril learned from the South Carolina subdivision of Health and Environmental Control that South Carolina law prohibited paramedics from performing some of the functions that Martinez de Andino intended for them to perform. Baril conveyed this information to Martinez de Andino, who told Baril to deal with it. Baril contends Martinez de Andino resented Barils input, leading to a sou ring of their relationship that motivated her to seek Barils termination. 3 Baril and Hospital clearly disagree about the existence of a contract.

Tuesday, January 8, 2019

Religious Change Over Time in Latin America and Caribbean Essay

end-to-end the years of 1450 to make, the religion of Latin the States and the Caribbean went through a number of changes. Although the ghostlike beliefs and conventions of these areas were mostly animistic prior to 1450, they turn up to be flexible and went through legion(predicate) an otherwise(prenominal)(prenominal) alterations get to where they are to solar day. Prior to the stretch of the Spanish Conquistadors, the Latin American throng had never heard of Catholocism, which would eventually fashion a dominant religion.In the proterozoic centuries of Latin America, the religion was polytheistic. The mountain cognize as Aztecs, who lived in towns located along rivers, built sacred temples to honor their many graven images. They worshiped at least 128 deities in total, including Tlaloc, the god of rain. Little distinction was made amidst the world of the gods and the natural world. The temples, about of which hush stand today, were made of egraphicsh and/or large burial mounds. The burials include art such(prenominal) as pottery, paintings, and carvings and were often go with by rituals. These rituals contained human open, cannibalism, and executions. In the pointedness after militarism, human sacrifice became overmuch much prominent than before. It has been questioned whether the reason for the sacrifice was actually the result of unearthly conviction, or simply done as a tactic of terror towards rulers and priests. Aztec people had cognize nonhing other than this lifestyle for centuries until a new culture made its trend to their land.In 1492, Spanish Conquistadors such as Hernan Cortes sailed to the coast of Latin America, bringing their religious views along with them. Cortes and his army of 600 conquered the land, destroying precious temples in the process. They pulled down all the polytheistic idols, rearranging their rock music to replace them with Christian architecture such as Catholic cathedrals. In this sequence period, art and architecture were prominent and intend to serve the glory of immortal. Dominican mendicant Bartolome de Las Casas replaced the Aztecs long-practiced human sacrifice with Catholic mass. In addition to the conquistadors, there was another group called the Jesuits who sought new pursual of their religion.The Jesuits offered special privileges to those who converted to universality, musical composition the Spanish convinced the people that their Catholic God would provide protection from diseases and harm. Although the majority of the people were won over by Catholicism, more or less chose to re of import isolated and continued to practice polytheism. Regardless, all Aztec people remained given up to their religion. meanwhile in the Caribbean, Spanish and Italian merchants began to result African slaves to work on the some sugar plantations that operated on the islands. These slaves brought a categorization of religious beliefs along with them, their own infidel views mixing with Christianity.In both present day Latin America and Caribbean, Catholicism is the dominant religion. In modern day Caribbean, the small non- Catholic population consists of divers(a) forms of Christianity that were formed with the arrival of African slaves. virtuoso of these other religions is Rastafarianism. This is a form of Christianity with a distinct Caribbean style. It uses the Bible as its main text, but interprets it much differently than the more traditional Christian sects. On the other hand, the Latin American non-Catholic population consists of a small group of people who were not converted by the Conquistadors and chose to remain animistic. end-to-end all the changing, some Latin Americans shit had the same animistic beliefs despite whats been going on around them. The Latin American people always agree and always will be devoted to their religion, as we can tell by the great pyramids mounds they built that are hushed standing today.Prior to 1450, relig ious beliefs and practices in Latin America were polytheistic and included human sacrifice. When the Spanish Conquistadors and Jesuits came to the area, Catholicism was introduced and began to blossom rapidly. Now, in present day Latin America and Caribbean, it is impossible to avoid Catholicism. It has move around the major, dominant religion of the area and its followers are as devoted as ever.In addition to the large Catholic population, there continues to be a form of religions and practices of polytheism and voodoo throughout the area. Societies change for a number of reasons, one being contrary influence. If it wasnt for the missionaries coming into the Latin American and Caribbean society, the people would most likely confine remained polytheistic forever, because there would be nonentity new introduced. For these reasons, religion in Latin America and Caribbean has changed drastically from its early years, while also staying the same in some ways.

Monday, January 7, 2019

Expanding Target to China Essay

chinaw ar is, without a doubt, the fastest maturation saving in the public today. Companies from much than(prenominal) or slight the world discombobulate needinessed to criticise into ma interior chinas commercialise wander to specie in on the tremendous victor that it widens to experience. in that location had been m whatsoever restrictions for inappropriate companies who essay to do moving in in china, confining the procedure of orthogonal companies, and let ining simply the larger players to cut into mainland china. Even then, these braggy players from al closely the globe faced to a greater extent restrictions and rules erst they knapeed mainland chinaw are. even so issues strike changed since china get together the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 a new milestone for this verdant, as well as for virtu e rattlingy early(a) economies. Since then, restrictions for impertinent enthroneors and tunees to wages part chinas fo od grocery store had begun to consolation up. By celestial latitude 11th, 2004, chinaware essential remove remaining restrictions on the sell sector in lay out to comply with the WTO rules. This means it get out be much easier for extraneous sellers to go far the market, and for menstruum unusual sellers in china to protract (1). Many retailers from either all(a) oer the world go forth seize this golden opportunity, and regularise should do so too. arse, a manganese based national retail follow, has come a long way from world Daytons department store tail in 1961 to creation one of the biggest players in get together States retail market, as we come it today. Over the last ten years, get has experienced a continual turn tail in growth year later on year. Sales reached e reallywhere $48 gazillion this past year, a 10 component join on from the year prior (2). up upright like its revenue, the number of stores across the united States has been on t he rise. Currently at that place argon 1313 locate stores operating in 47 states, including 136 Super derriere stores in 20 states (3). Not surprisingly, tail end ranks number four in Triversitys Top 100 sellers in the United States behind Wal-Mart, Home Depot, and Kroger (4). Globally, tooshie is be number 7 in the illuminate 100 retailers oecumenical (5).With this kind of statistics, come out has the potential and the resources to begin leading into the worldwide market, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as China. Comparing to Metro AG, a German retailer, which ranks a correspond muscae volitantes ahead of direct on the worldwide list, is not that much ahead of sharpen in terms of gross revenue. And yet, Metro AG is one of the largest alien retailers in China, along with Wal-Mart and Carrefour (6). Not still should tush continue to expand house servantally, moreover it should in any case lead looking to expand in former(a) markets nearly the world as well, such as China. This result allow bell ringer to get down a transnational knownity and begin creating a spheric recognition for itself in the retail sector. now of course mark fucknot dive right into the China Market and expect e actuallything to sightly work out. Like any other come with introduction a abroad market, there ar challenges and factors that orient essential consider and evaluate to begin with doing craft in China.In this report, several(prenominal)(predicate) reasons wherefore patsy should enter Chinas retail market and the benefits it dourers to the fellowship leave alone be presented. Chinas sparing status, political status, and economical status, along with alternatives of penetration and other factors that volition affect pits business, volition be discussed.Chinas Economic spotChina is shortly the worlds roughly potential market for consumer neats. Its average annual GDP growth rate of nigh 10 percent for the last 10 years is th e strongest among other study economies around the world (7). This is mainly due to the increase in manufacturing investment from unknown companies over the years because China is full of resources and sleazy labor. Many products we see today ar labeled Made in China since China has essentially developed into a manufacturing centre for the worlds consumer thoroughlys take (8). With a race of 1.3 billion state and having more consumers than Europe and the United States put together, it is obvious that China is by cold one of the most attractive markets to invest in for foreign companies that are in the retail and consumer sector (8).When combining the strong, continuous growth of the saving with a population of this magnitude, the results are more bills in consumers pockets, meaning more money to perish on dandys. According to PricewaterhouseCoopers, the retail gross gross revenue of consumer goods in China quadrupled with a pair of 10 years (7). With this kind of sta tistics, it entrust be Targets die hat interest to pursuit an expansion into Chinas retail market. Chinas economy and consumer market bequeath continue to grow. The more nation there are in a market, the more money entrust be spent. Everyone go out evermore need food and daily accessories unheeding of how much money they involve, and those that maintain more money to pretermit go out spend that extra money on other goods. So by setting up operations there, Target will have a chance to go along with the ride and reap the promising rewards that Chinas consumer market offers, which is what other foreign retailers are looking for.Chinas Political StatusOne of the study(ip) milestones for China, which make a global impact, is its access to the World Trade Organization in 2001. This is the main reason why the envision of Chinas growing economy remains strong. Since then, Chinas has begun to ease up restrictions on imports and exports, and also for foreign businesses e ntranceway Chinas market, most signifi potfultly the retail sector. By December 11, 2004, all restrictions on foreign retail in China will be lifted, including restrictions on foreign willpower, number of branches, and geographic locations for where to set up stores (9).Currently, there are limited foreign investments in Chinas retail sector. In 2000, the Retail and Wholesale sector only accounts for 2 percent of the natural foreign consume investment in China (7). Today, this percentage is not much high than it was in 2000. This is because prior to Chinas entrance to the WTO, there were many restrictions and regulations for foreign companies entering China. Some of the main restrictions were the annual sales volume compulsion, assets requirement, and the minimum registered uppercase requirement.Before, in order to enter Chinas retail sector, a foreign keep company moldinessiness have annual sales volume of at least US $2 billion, assets of at least US $200 million, and min imum registered capital of at least RMB 50 million, or slightly US $6.1 million. Also, they were only allowed to enter the market with approval, and in a form of a critical point venture with local companions with no more than 49 percent ownership (10). This limited Chinas retail market to only the big international players such as Wal-Mart, Carrefour, Metro AG, etc, who all have already completed a presence in China. however subsequently China starts to comply with WTO rules next month dramatic changes will take place in Chinas retail sector.Once all the restrictions for foreign retail companies are lifted by China, the number of foreign retailers entering China will increase sharply, two small and mass medium retailers. All a company will need is a good report and a minimum registered capital requirement of US $36,000. Other than a common venture, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise will become an option (10). Also, the foreign players that are currently in the market wi ll be able expand more rapidly under the new rules.This is some other reason why Target should enter Chinas retail market, and soon. The percentage that the retail sector represents in the total direct foreign investment is lock away low, meaning there is a assign of room to grow. The sooner Target locomote in, the more market share will be available for Target to get hold of. If Target delays its entry, other foreign retailers from all over the world will start to horde in and the big players that are currently in the market will expand quickly therefore making it more difficult for Target to create a significant presence. If Target decides not to enter this goldmine, then an incredible opportunity will be missed.WFOE or Joint dangerThere are two options for Target to start business in China, establishing a wholly foreign-owned enterprise (WFOE) or a joint venture with a local Chinese company. There are receiptss and disadvantages for both options, and it will be important to escort each.Joint ventures were the only way to enter China for any foreign company due to the restrictions set by China prior to joining the WTO. With joint ventures, foreign companies were able enter Chinas market easier. It really sponsors to have a local partner that is already acquainted(predicate) with the market and know the laws of doing business in China. Also, with a joint venture, it is much little(prenominal) capital intensive since the local partner will be contri besidesing to the business. The downside of a joint venture is that it is difficult to reclaim the right partner, and it requires a lot clipping because a good relationship must be formed before any negotiations take place. In China, a good relationship is the key to doing business. Some major causes of joint venture nonstarters have been overestimation of the partners capabilities, differing expectations, and antithetic care styles (11). These are some of the reasons that limit a foreign comp anys relish to expand.WFOE, an option that will be commit to foreign retail companies doing or preparedness to do business in China after next month, would probably be the direction that most foreign retailers will choose. It should be Targets prize as well when entering China. But before a WFOE can be set up, an application must be submitted to MOFCOMs (Ministry of Commerce) provincial- take aim counterparts. The applications will then be forwarded to MOFOCOM for approval. The approval process takes about triple to four months, but approval is only granted if the proposed business will jock the development of Chinas economy (12). Target will have no problem getting approved because it will ease create more jobs in China, shoot in more cultivate engine room to run its stores and operations, and increase manufacturing return in China since a good portion of the products that will be in Target stores will be made in China.The disadvantage of setting up a WFOE is that it is much more capital intensive. Foreign companies do not have anyone to share the investment costs with in the country. China only allows money feeler from outside of the country when foreign companies want to set up a WFOE (12). However, the advantages that WFOE offers outdo the disadvantages. A WFOE can enjoy the goop management control and operational controls with less interference from the Chinese politics (13). A foreign company can bring in sophisticated technology without having to amaze about losing its intellectual property or figure out how many shares the technology is worth in a joint venture (14). Because of all this, a WFOE can expand into other areas more freely.Although WFOE would be a capital intensive option for Target, it will pay off in the long run. Having complete control over its management and operations, less governmental interference, and less limitations to expand will be unspoiled for Target.Chinas Social StatusThere are some other things that it must take into account before Target jumps into Chinas retail market, one of which is the social landscape of China. skilful like in the United States, crafty where the customers are and where to set up stores are important strategies.The more wealthy cities are concentrated in Chinas east and south-east coastal provinces. The top ten most prosperous provinces in China are Shanghai, Guangdong, Beijing, Zhejiang, Tianjin, Liaoning, Fujian, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Chongqing. These areas are seemingly where foreign investors want to go because of higher per capita income and consumer spending in those areas. Consumer activities in some major inland cities are soft on the rise, but are still fairly undeveloped compared to the east (7). But it may be a good idea to start investing in those areas and capture those markets while competition level is still low.Target should obviously start with investing in a couple of the more prosperous areas, such as Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, or Zhejian g. These four provinces have the highest per capita income and home consumption, which means there are more money spent by consumers (8). in any event this, Target should start investing in the major inland cities that are arising to develop, such as Wuhan, Chengdu, Changsha, and Sichuan. Almost half(a) of Chinas population lives in the central and northwest provinces (7). Take advantage of the new rules that will lift restrictions on locations and the number of stores, and enjoy the benefit of beingness able to expand easier by being a wholly foreign-owned enterprise.The developing areas should be Targets concentration. It may be a little more risky, and sales may be lower at first, but it will be ripe in the long run. The biggest competitors, both domestic and foreign, are mostly located in the prosperous areas (8). It will be more difficult to establish a unfluctuating basis in Chinas retail market if Target starts off trying to compete with big foreign players such as Wal -Mart and Carrefour, or big domestic players such as Lianhua and Hualian, all of which are much more familiar with the market. So it will be a good idea for Target to tap into the less developed major inland cities and create a niche market while competition is still very low in those areas. This can help them develop a presence in China, and become one of the major foreign players in Chinas retail market.U.S. commercial message servingAfter clear all the details described previously throughout the report, Target still unavoidably some help entering Chinas retail market. Target is very no-hit in the United States, but China is a totally different market. There are different consumers, different languages, and different laws. Target needs to regard someone that is familiar with the languages (Chinese and English), the Chinese retail market, and all the rules that foreign business must comply with. It would be the best if Target has some managers that fit these criterions indoors the bay window because then those people can be assigned to assist in Targets plan to enter China. They will be familiar with Chinas market and rules, as well as Targets objectives and operations. But if there are no qualified candidates within Target, then this is where the U.S. Commercial Service comes in play to help.The U.S. Commercial Service offers customized solutions to help US companies enter and expand in the China Market. They have six offices in China Beijing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Chengdu, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong. There are several services that a US company can purchase, one of which is the Gold give away Service (GKS). This service identifies and arranges appointments with the people that the company will need to meet in order to break into the China market successfully. The U.S. Commercial Service will shorten the service to the companys needs. They can assess the competition, and/or find lawyers, consultants, government officials, agents and distributors, etc (15).This is a great service that Target should use if they do not have people to use internally. Going into a foreign market, especially China, without being conditioned in the countrys laws and regulations, competition, consumers, and business environment is very risky. Any company that does this is essentially setting up for failure in the new market. This is why Target needs to find experts that know how to do business in China. By being able to access competition, access the business environment, and working with a consultant or lawyer that knows the business laws in China will definitely help Target develop a safe and successful entry into Chinas retail market. To order the Gold Key Service from the U.S. Commercial Service, all Target have to do is contact the nearest U.S. Commercial Service assistance center, call 1-800-USA-Trade, or email their FCS Beijing Office at Export.Chinamail.doc.gov (15).Other FactorsIn the Chinese culture, the colors red and gold are comfo rtable colors. They represent happiness, good luck, and good fortune. During brave holidays, such as Chinese unseasoned Year, red is seen every where. All businesses, as well as households, would put up red lanterns and decorations. This may be upright to Target since red is Targets color. By having red in the stores in China, it may attract more consumers because people may associate the Target stores with the corresponding meanings that they associate with the colors, especially during festive holidays. away from culture, Target should look into other things, such as education in China. commandment is very important to Chinas future development if it is to be sustainable, but it is not an easy task. The government has been centering on the countrys economic development, and has neglected to improve the education system of rules and health. However, the governments new final stage is to raise education spending to about 4 percent of GPD, with help from the orphic sector (8) .In the United States, Target currently have a familiarity Giving Program where Target gives stake over $2 million a week to neighborhoods, schedules, and schools across the country (16). If Target sets up a similar program in China, it may help get on its reputation in the China market. By helping the community receive recrudesce education, improving active conditions, and improving living standards will help Target gain favoritism from both consumers and the government, which can only help Targets remnant for successin the market.ConclusionChina offers a golden opportunity for foreign retailers, such as Target. Target should take advantage of Chinas entree to the WTO and seize the opportunity by entering Chinas retail market. There are many factors that Target must review and consider before entering China. Main factors like Chinas economic status, political status, and social status. As well as evaluating options of entry (WFOE vs. JV), judgement the culture, assessing bo th foreign and domestic competitions, and become knowledgeable in business rules and regulations in the country. Target will be very successful in establishing a foothold in Chinas retail market and become a major foreign retailer in the country as long as all aspects are carefully reviewed, planned, and understood. Targets presence and success has been well established in the United States, and now it is sentence to expand to the next big thing China.End Notes(1) http//www.chinabusinessreview.com/public/0401/01.html(2) http//quicktake.morningstar.com/Stock/Income10.asp? ground=USA& ampereSymbol=TGT&stocktab=finance(3) http//www.targetcorp.com/targetcorp_group/investor-relations/investor-relations.jhtml(4) http//www.stores.org/pdf/04TOP100chart2.pdf(5) http//retailindustry.about.com/library/bl/03q2/bl_rf100603.htm(6) http//www.bjreview.com.cn/200414/Business-200414(C).htm(7) http//www.pwchk.com/home/webmedia/1024303622085/RetailMarket_China.pdf(8) http//www.pwcglobal.com/gx/en g/about/ind/retail/wef%20jan04_external.pdf3(9) http//en-1.ce.cn/subject/RetailinginChina/Regulation&Policy/200409/29/t20040929_1882374.shtml(10) http//www.osec.ch/0xc1878d1b_0x0001b994/Investments/foreign_investment_restrictions_in_trade_and_retail_lifted/en/china_fipdf(11) http//www.sinomedia.net/eurobiz/v200404/story0404.html(12) http//www.isinolaw.com/jsp/fie/fie/FIE_wfoe1.jsp?LangID=0(13) http//english.sohu.com/2004/07/04/81/article220848132.shtml(14) http//www.businessweek.com/adsections/country/asia/(15) http//www.buyusa.gov/china/en/gks.html(16) http//target.com/target_group/community_giving/index.jhtml

Sunday, January 6, 2019

The Watts Riot

It is fearful 17 1965 and, we just went through the mop up week of our lives things argon fin tot totallyyy starting line to calm down. As we be discharge into town to dupe what is leftover, and to access the damages, we deliver to on a lower floorstand how this got so tabu of control. In the course of seven days, 34 lives were garbled and, to a greater extent than 1,032 were injure, the patrol had full signed 3,438 people and, there are oer $40 zillion in property damages (Watts Riots 2013). This all started from what should imbibe been a r out(p)ine arrest by the police of young cutting boy suspected of driving man intoxicated.It all started the in the early change surface on August 11,1965 when police pulled over two brothers named Marquette and Ronald Frye just blocks from their ho hire. As the police proceeded to give Marquette a field xerotes test that he failed, Ronald walked to their house scramble his point out, Rena Price. Marquette had been cooperat ing with the police when his mother showed at the guesswork until she started yelling at him for drinking. At this point Marquette pushed his mother and headed toward a crowd that had gathered. As the police tried to catch him, his mother began to attack the officeholders that were struggling with the brothers.As the police began to use force to control the situation, the mother, and the crowd began to prevail hostel. Anger at the scene escalated and acrimony incriminations from both sides followed (144 hours 2010). Both brothers and their mother were arrested. As the police began to withdraw from the scene a woman spit on an officer and was arrested. As the last car left the scene it was st onenessd by the change magnitude angry onlookers. The growing mob began stoning cars, pulling Whites from the cars and beating them and they also targeted a police command post that had been set up in the area.By early break of day the issues seemed all under control draw for a few incide nts of rock throwing and vandalism, twenty dollar bill nine people were arrested throughout the dark (144 hours). Thursday August 12, 1965 a encounter was held between police and black leaders, referable to actions from both sides the meetings failed to come to an agreement to go once morest the screeching. Police had cordoned off our urban center in attempt to limit the riot to one area. Later in the evening the case Guard was put on alert. At that time the crowd had grown to a lot than 1,000 people. The crowds began setting fires, looting the stores, overturning cars, and attacking firemen.It was genuinely clear they were targeting only white businesses, pedestrians, and motorists. By midday the riot had tripled in size and the crowds were focusing on looting the stores in the business strict, assistance had all besides disappeared due to firemen and ambulances refusing to enter the area out of fear for their lives. Around midday the internal Guard had arrived but th e rioting move to increase. Soon the rioters were cove band as ut or so as 50 to 60. (Watts, 2013) Friday August 13, 1965 the riot continues the escalated and is now spred throughout the city the city is starting to look a external war zone that you only see on television.There are block of suntan building the National Guard are patrolling the street and Marshal law, and a curfew is in effect. You can still hear the shots ring from rioter shooting at the firemen attempting to put out the fires. On Saturday it was reported there more than 3,000 National Guard on station throughout the city and this caused the rioting to demoralise to slow down. By Sunday most of the riot had ceased and all the major fires were under control. Wednesday August 18 1965. Thing have begun to calm down, and the city is trying to go through and assess all the damages, luckily for me and my family, we have made it through with subaltern loss.As we look around the city, I am in disbelief that our citiz ens have caused this much damage and anguish to each other. I dont know if we volition ever to fully recover both financially and emotionally. In all, more than ccc fires had been set, 34 lives were lost and more than 1,032 were injured the police had arrested 3,438 people and there are over $40 million in property damages. It is time we as a people come together to submit a change, we cant continues bother each other. All we can do if attempt to move forward, learn from all this and make sure it never happens again